Neural Modeling: The STAA Approach

  • Bernd J. Kröger
  • Trevor Bekolay


This section provides an introduction to computer-implemented connectionist neural models. It explains how sensory, motor, and cognitive states are represented at the neural level and how these states can be processed in neural networks. Supervised learning is illustrated through a sensorimotor association example and unsupervised learning through a self-organizing network example, both using vowel representations. This chapter is intended to provide a basic understanding of how our central nervous system works by modeling it as a neural network with interconnected buffers of neurons, and recurrently connected buffers that maintain short-term memories.


Connectionism Nodes Link weights Neural network Neural learning Kohonen network Neural self-organization 


Sections 6.1 and 6.2

  1. Cockayne G (2008) The connectionist modelling of language acquisition. PhD-thesis. University of Birmingham, UKGoogle Scholar
  2. Dorffner G (1991) Konnektionismus: Von neuronalen Netzwerken zu einer “natürlichen” KI. Teubner Verlag, StuttgartCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Elman JL (1993) Learning and development in neural networks: the importance of starting small. Cognition 48:71–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schade U (1992) Konnektionismus: Zur Modellierung der Sprachproduktion. Westdeutscher Verlag, OpladenCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 6.3

  1. Kohonen T (2001) Self-organizing maps, 3rd edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kröger BJ, Kannampuzha J, Neuschaefer-Rube C (2009) Towards a neurocomputational model of speech production and perception. Speech Comm 51:793–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Obleser J, Boecker H, Drzezga A, Haslinger B, Hennenlotter A, Roettinger M, Eulitz C, Rauschecker JP (2006) Vowel sound extraction in anterior superior temporal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 27:562–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd J. Kröger
    • 1
  • Trevor Bekolay
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Phoniatrics, Pedaudiology and Communications DisordersRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.Applied Brain ResearchWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations