What brain areas and other parts of the nervous system are involved in speech processing? How do the organization and function of those neural resources enable speech processing? In order to answer these two questions, we introduce the broad categories of neurons (sensory neurons, motoneurons, and central neurons) and the functional neuroanatomy of the central and peripheral nervous system (focusing on the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and auditory, visual, somatosensory, and motor pathways). Subsequently, we identify speech-related functional groups of neurons within these regions. At the end of this section, we introduce a physiologically oriented model of speech and language processing.