Speech Production

  • Bernd J. Kröger
  • Trevor Bekolay


In this chapter we introduce semantic networks, mental lexicon, mental syllabary, articulation, and how the acoustic speech signal is generated. We detail the types of information associated with lexical items (concept, lemma, and phonological form) and syllables (motor form or motor plan, auditory form, somatosensory form), and discuss how motor plans are created with speech movement units. We then explain how motor plans activate articulatory movements for the lips, tongue, velum, and larynx, and how those motor plans generate the acoustic speech signal. At the end of the chapter, we briefly discuss production-related language and speech disorders.


Speech movement units Syllable Articulation Vocal tract Formant Phonation Speech production 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd J. Kröger
    • 1
  • Trevor Bekolay
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Phoniatrics, Pedaudiology and Communications DisordersRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.Applied Brain ResearchWaterlooCanada

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