Valuation of Forest Ecosystem, Environmental and Social Services

  • Alastair Fraser
Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)


In this chapter, examples of the valuation of forest ecosystem and environmental services are described, including Willingness to Pay, Cost of damage avoided and the cost of alternatives such as artificial fertilisers to replace nutrient lost through erosion. Some evidence indicates that loss of forest cover in critical watersheds can result in increased flood damage. Forests are important in some places for soil stabilisation, especially in arid areas, and for coastal protection against storm surges and tsunamis. More research is needed on the life cycle of wood in various forms for estimating the real benefit of forests for carbon sequestration. Ecotourism is shown to bring significant benefits to local communities, but care needs to be exercised to avoid environmental damage as a result of excessive use of popular sites.


Ecosystem services Willingness to Pay Forest product life cycle Ecotourism 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alastair Fraser
    • 1
  1. 1.Consultant in Forest Policy and EconomicsPerthshireUK

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