Cold Start Emission Characteristics and Its Effects on Real Driving Emission Test

  • Xiaowei WangEmail author
  • Xiaojun Jing
  • Jingyuan Li
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 929)


Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle (WLTC) and real driving emission (RDE) tests were conducted for a light duty vehicles equipped with a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine in accordance with the China 6 emission regulation of light-duty vehicles. Results show that compared to the cold WLTC test, the emissions of CO, NMHC, THC, PM, PN and NOx from a hot WLTC test are reduced by 91%, 71%, 61%, 39%, 37% and 27%, respectively. For RDE test, when calculating the cold start phase, the emissions of CO, PN and NOx are 24.2%, 2.2 and 3.4% higher than the emissions when excluding the cold start phase. CO2 emission from a hot WLTC is lower than that from a cold WLTC. Especially in the low speed phase, CO2 emission from a hot WLTC is 14% lower than that from a cold WLTC. When using CO2 emission from a cold WLTC and a hot WLTC respectively for move average window (MAW) calculation, the result shows that CO2 value has little effect on the conformity factor of each emission, but has a significant effect on verification of trip completeness and normality.


Light-duty vehicle Cold start Real driving emissions Emission characteristics Move average window 



Supported by China Ministry of Science and Technology’s Air Pollution Cause Control Technology Special Project (2016YFC0208002).


  1. 1.
    Clairotte M, Adam W, Zardini A et al (2013) Effects of low temperature on the cold start gaseous emissions from light duty vehicles fuelled by ethanol-blended gasoline. Appl Energy 102:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Badshah H, Kittelson D, Northrop W Particle emissions from light-duty vehicles during cold-cold start. SAE Paper 2016-01-1775 (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saliba G, Saleh R, Zhao YL et al (2017) Comparison of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle emissions: emission certification standards, cold-start, secondary organic aerosol formation potential, and potential climate impacts. Environ Sci Technol 51(11):6542–6552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu Y (2005) Internal combustion engine emissions and control. Machinery Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ministry of Environment Protection (2016) GB 18352.6—2016 Limits and measurement methods for emissions from light-duty vehicles (Chinese stage 6) 23 December 2016Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang B, Dai, C, Li J, et al (2017) Research on RDE test methods for light-duty vehicle. Autom Parts (3):6–9Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fu B, Yang Z, Yin H et al (2017) A research on the real driving emission characteristics of light-duty gasoline vehicles. Automot Eng 39(4):376–380 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yang Z, Fu B, Yin H et al (2017) A research on the real driving emission characteristics of light-duty diesel vehicles. Automot Eng 39(5):497–502 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ma Z (2017) Research on the characteristics of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) for light duty vehicles. Master dissertation, Jilin UniversityGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Luján M, Bermúdez V, Dolz V et al (2018) An assessment of the real-world driving gaseous emissions from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Atmos Environ 174:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khan T, Christopher H (2018) Comparison of real-world and certification emission rates for light duty gasoline vehicles. Sci Total Environ 622–623:790–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang H, Hu J, Bao X (2010) Emission characteristics of gasoline taxi cabs complying with China 4 emission standards during cold and hot starts. J Automot Saf Energy 1(2):146–151Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd.TianjinChina

Personalised recommendations