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Introduction

  • Joey Sing Yee TanEmail author
  • Amandeep S. Sidhu
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 832)

Abstract

Over the past few years, surgical simulation has emerged as an alternative medical training or pre-operation planning method in the medical field. During the early stage of surgical training, novice surgeons used to practice via animals, cadavers and real patient. Each of these methods face challenges in terms of cost, availability, ethical restriction and realistic. The animals’ organs or soft tissues do not accurately represent the human anatomy, particularly the measurement of the organs’ sizes.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Complexity InstituteNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Biological Mapping Research Institute (BIOMAP)PerthAustralia

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