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Nephrolithiasis in Patients with Gastrointestinal Disorders

  • Gebran AbboudEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Patients with malabsorptive gastrointestinal disorders are at higher risk of kidney stones than those without. These disorders include inflammatory bowel diseases, with or without bowel resection, chronic pancreatitis, and celiac disease. The malabsorption of water, sodium, oxalate, bicarbonate, and fat leads to increased urinary concentration of stone-forming factors. The most common stones seen in gastrointestinal disorders contain calcium oxalate or uric acid. Major risk factors for stone formation are decreased urinary volume, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia from high gastrointestinal output, and enteric hyperoxaluria from fat malabsorption. Prevention of kidney stones in such patients requires modifying standard stone-forming risk factors, but special consideration should be paid to metabolic abnormalities specific to this patient population. Treatment of the underlying gastrointestinal disorders also results in decreased incidence of kidney stones in this group.

Keywords

Malabsorption Inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s disease Ulcerative colitis Ileostomy Celiac disease Bacterial overgrowth Chronic pancreatitis Hyperoxaluria 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Conemaugh Memorial Medical CenterJohnstownUSA

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