Advertisement

Three-Dimensional Body Scanning in Sustainable Product Development: An Exploration of the Use of Body Scanning in the Production and Consumption of Female Apparel

  • Louise F. ReidEmail author
  • Gianpaolo Vignali
  • Katharine Barker
  • Courtney Chrimes
  • Rachel Vieira
Chapter

Abstract

The fashion industry is plagued with complications regarding garment sizing and inadequate fit. Inconsistent sizing systems, coupled with the lack of attention by industry in understanding deviations in female body shapes, not only impose severe implications upon the consumer decision-making process but also inflict issues regarding sustainability. As a result of recent advancements in technology, three-dimensional (3D) body scanning has been argued to be the solution to these issues, by providing a more sustainable method of clothing production and distribution, as well as enhancing apparel fit. Indeed, 3D body scanning technology has the ability to capture replicable and more consistent data sets than manual measurement collection. However, this chapter challenges the current application of 3D body scanning in apparel production by addressing two vital limitations. The first challenge explored is the incompatibility of 3D body scan measurements with manual product practices. Second, consumer fit preferences are often overlooked by body shape and measurement. Hence, this chapter reasons that only when these key limitations are addressed can 3D body scanning help facilitate sustainable practice and provide retailers with enough information to develop well-fitted apparel.

Keywords

3D body scanning Technology Clothing size Body shape Sustainability 

References

  1. Abraham-murali, L., & Littrell, M. A. (1995a). Consumer’ conceptualization of apparel attributes. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 13(2), 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham-murali, L., & Littrell, M. A. (1995b). Consumers’ perceptions of apparel quality over time: An exploratory study. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 13(1), 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldrich, W. (2015). Metric pattern cutting for women’s wear (6th ed.). London: John Wiley and Sons Ltd..Google Scholar
  4. Alessandro, S., & Chitty, B. (2011). Real or relevant beauty? Body shape and endorser effects on bran??!! Attitude and body image. Journal of Psychology and Marketing, 28(8), 843–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander, M., Pisut, G. R., & Ivanescu, A. (2012). Investigating women’s plus-size body measurements and hip shape variation based on SizeUSA data. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 5(1), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvanon. (2018). Shaping the future of fit. Retrieved September 2018, from https://alvanon.com/.
  7. Apeagyei, P. R. (2010). Application of 3D body scanning technology to human measurement for clothing. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and Its Applications, 4(7), 1–10.Google Scholar
  8. Ashdown, S. (2007). Sizing in clothing: Developing effective sizing systems for ready-to-wear clothing. England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashdown, S. P., & Na, H. (2008). Comparison of 3-D body scan data to quantify upper-body postural variation in older and younger women. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 26(4), 292–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bougourd, J. P., Dekker, L., Ross, P. G., & Ward, J. P. (2000). A comparison of women’s sizing by 3D electronic scanning and traditional anthropometry. The Journal of the Textile Institute, 91(2), 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brownbridge, K., Sanderson, R., & Gill, S. (2016). Aspirational bodies: Fashioning new beauty ideals. Inter-disciplinary.net, pp. 1–12.
  12. BSI. (1982). BS 3666: 1982 specification for size designation of womenswear. London: British Standards Institute.Google Scholar
  13. BSI. (2005). BS EN 13402-3:2004 size designation of clothes-part 3: Measurements and intervals. London: British Standards Institute.Google Scholar
  14. Bye, E., LaBat, K. L., & DeLong, M. R. (2006). Analysis of body measurement systems for apparel. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 24(2), 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chattaraman, V., & Rudd, N. A. (2006). Preferences for aesthetic attributes in clothing as a function of body image, body cathexis and body size. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 24(1), 46–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, C.-M. (2007). Fit evaluation within the made-to-measure process. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 19(2), 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Choi, T.-M., & Guo, S. (2018). Responsive supply in fashion mass customisation systems with consumer returns. International Journal of Production Research, 56(10), 3409–3422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coltman, C. E., McGhee, D. E., & Steele, J. R. (2017). Three-dimensional scanning in women with large, ptotic breasts: Implications for bra cup sizing and design. Ergonomics, 60(3), 439–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Connell, L. J., Ulritch, P., Knox, A., Hutton, G., Woronka, D., Bruner, D., & Ashdown, S. (2003). Body scan analysis for fit models based on body shape and posture analysis. National Textile Center Annual Report [Online]. Retrieved October 24, 2013, from http://www.ntcresearch.org/pdf-rpts/AnRp03/S01-AC27-A3.pdf.
  20. D’Apuzzo, N. (2009). Recent advance in 3D full body scanning with applications to fashion and apparel. In A. Gruen & H. Kahmen (Eds.), 3D measurement techniques IX. Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  21. Diedrichs, P., & Lee, C. (2011). Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. Psychology and Health, 26(10), 1273–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Douty, H. (1968). Visual somatometry in health-related research. Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, 39(1), 21–34.Google Scholar
  23. Fan, J., Yu, W., & Hunter, L. (2004). Clothing appearance and fit: Science and technology. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farrell-Beck, J. A., & Pouliot, C. J. (1983). Pants alteration by graphic somatometry techniques. Home Economics Research Journal, 12(1), 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Faust, M.-E., & Carrier, S. (2009). Women’s wear sizing: A new labelling system. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management., 14(1), 88–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gill, S. (2015). A review of research and Innovation in garment sizing, prototyping and fitting. Textile Progress, 47(1), 1–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gill, S. (2018). Human measurement and product development for high-performance apparel. In J. McLoughlin & T. Sabir (Eds.), High performance apparel. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Gill, S., & Chadwick, N. (2009). Determination of ease allowances included in pattern construction methods. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 2(1), 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gill, S., & Parker, C. J. (2017). Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: The impact on clothing design and body scanning. Ergonomics, 60(8), 1123–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gill, S., Parker, C. J., Hayes, S., Brownbridge, K., Wren, P., & Panchenko, A. (2014). The true height of the waist: Explorations of automated body scanner waist definitions of the TC2 Scanner. 5th International Conference on 3D Body Scanning Technologies. Lugano, Switzerland. 21–22 October 2014. Hometrica Consulting, Switzerland, pp. 55–65.Google Scholar
  31. Gill, S., Ahmed, M., Parker, C. J., & Hayes, S. (2017). Not all body scanning measurements are valid: Perspectives from pattern practice. 8th International Conference on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies. Montreal, Canada, 11–12 October 2017. 3DBODY.TECH, Canada, pp. 43–52.Google Scholar
  32. Gregson, N., Crewe, L., & Brookes, K. (2002). Shopping, space and practice. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 20(5), 597–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gribbins, E. A. (2014). Body shape and its influence on apparel size and consumer choice. In M.-E. Faust & S. Carrier (Eds.), Designing apparel for consumer: The impact of body shape and size (pp. 3–16). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grogan, S., Gill, S., Brownbridge, K., Kilgariff, S., & Whalley, A. (2013). Dress fit and body image: A thematic analysis of women’s accounts during and after trying on dresses. Body Image, 10(3), 380–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Han, H., & Nam, Y. (2011). Automatic body landmark identification for various body figures. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 41(6), 592–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heisey, F. L., Brown, P., & Johnson, R. F. (1986). A mathematical analysis of the graphic somatometry method of pattern alteration. Home Economics Research Journal, 15(2), 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ISO. (2018). ISO 8559-3: 2018 Size designation of clothes—part 3: Methodology for the creation of body measurement tables and intervals. Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.Google Scholar
  38. Kalkhoff, W., Marcussen, K., & Serpe, R. T. (2016). To thine own self be true? Clarifying the effects of identity discrepancies on psychological distress and emotions. Social Science Research, 58, 14–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim, H., & Damhorst, M. L. (2010). The relationship of body related self-discrepancy to body dissatisfaction, apparel involvement, concerns with fit and size of garments, and purchase intentions in online apparel shopping. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 28(4), 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, W., & Imaoka, H. (2010). Classification of body shape characteristics of women’s torsos using angles. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 22(4), 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee, J. Y., Istook, C. L., Nam, Y. J., & Park, S. M. (2007). Comparison of body shape between USA and Korean Women. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 19(5), 374–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liechty, E., Rasband, J., & Pottberg-steineckert, D. (2010). Fitting & pattern alteration (2nd ed.). New York: Fairchild Books.Google Scholar
  43. Mintel. (2018). Executive summary womenswear-UK May 2018. Mintel Oxygen [Online]. Retrieved October 23, 2018, from http://academic.mintel.com/display/859091/.
  44. Onge, A., Merles, A., Pichonneau, F., & Senecal, S. (2016). Does the size of a fashion model on a retailers website impact the customers perceived attractiveness of the model and purchase intention? The role of gender, body satisfaction and congruence. In Managing complexity book (pp. 281–285). Basel: Springer.Google Scholar
  45. ONS. (2017). Office for national statistics-July 2017: Internet retail sales. Retrieved September 10, 2017, from https://www.ons.gov.uk/timeseriestool?topic=/businessindustryandtrade/retailindustry/timeseries.
  46. Otieno, R. (2000). The role of garment sizing in creation of customer satisfaction: Indications from focus group responses. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 4(4), 325–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pandarum, R., Yu, W., & Hunter, L. (2011). 3-D breast anthropometry of plus-sized women in South Africa. Ergonomics, 54(9), 866–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Park, W., & Park, S. (2013). Body shape analyses of large persons in South Korea. Ergonomics, 56(4), 692–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Petrova, A., & Ashdown, S. (2008). Three-dimensional body scan data analysis: Body size and shape dependence of ease values for pants fit. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 26(3), 227–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pisut, G., & Connell, L. J. (2007). Fit preference of female consumers in the USA. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 11(3), 366–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rasband, J. A., & Liechty, E. L. G. (2006). Fabulous fit (2nd ed.). New York: Fairchild Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  52. Reid, L. F., Ross, H., & Vignali, G. (2016). An exploration of the relationship between product selection criteria and engagement with ‘show-rooming’ and ‘web-rooming’ in the consumer’s decision-making process. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 17(3), 364–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schofield, N. A., & LaBat, K. L. (2005). Exploring the relationships of grading, sizing and anthropometric data. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 23(1), 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shaw, D. (2006). Fashion buying and merchandising. In D. Shaw & T. Jackson (Eds.), The fashion handbook (pp. 132–153). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Sheldon, W. H., Stevens, S. S., & Tucker, W. B. (1949). The varieties of human physique. New York: Harper and Brothers.Google Scholar
  56. Shin, E., & Baytar, F. (2014). Apparel fit and size concerns and intentions to use virtual try-on: Impacts of body satisfaction and images of model’s bodies. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(1), 20–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sidberry, P. (2011). Effects of body shape on body cathexis and dress shape preferences of female consumers: A balancing perspective. MSc, Auburn University.Google Scholar
  58. Simmons, K., Istook, C. L., & And Devarajan, P. (2004). Female Figure Identification Technique (FFIT) for apparel part II: Development of shape sorting software. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management, 4(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  59. Size Stream. (2018). Size stream. Retrieved September 2, 2018, from http://sizestream.com/.
  60. Sizemic. (2011). SizeUK-the national sizing survey [Online]. Retrieved August 7, 2011, from http://www.sizemic.eu/sizeuk.html.
  61. Song, H. K., & Ashdown, S. P. (2010). Categorization of lower body shapes for adult females based on multiple view analysis. Textile Research Journal, 81(9), 914–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Song, H. K., & Ashdown, S. P. (2013). Female apparel consumers’ understanding of body size and shape: Relationship among body measurements, fit satisfaction, and body cathexis. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 31(3), 143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. TC2. (2018). [TC2]2. Retrieved September 2, 2018, from https://www.tc2.com/.
  64. Vuruskan, A., & Bulgun, E. (2011). Identification of female body shapes based on numerical evaluations. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 23(1), 46–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang, L. (2014). Can technology solve the fit problem in fashion e-commerce? Business of Fashion [Online]. Retrieved March 9, 2018, from https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/fashion-tech/can-technology-solve-fit-problem-fashion-e-commerce.
  66. Yu, U., & Damhorst, M. L. (2015). Body satisfaction as antecedent to virtual product experience in an online apparel shopping context. Clothing and Textile Research Journal, 33(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise F. Reid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gianpaolo Vignali
    • 2
  • Katharine Barker
    • 3
  • Courtney Chrimes
    • 2
  • Rachel Vieira
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of GloucestershireCheltenhamUK
  2. 2.University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  3. 3.Alliance Manchester Business SchoolUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations