Cultures of Positivity: Interconnectedness as a Way of Being

  • Marié P. WissingEmail author
  • Lusilda Schutte
  • Angelina Wilson Fadiji
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)


In this chapter we argued that a good quality of life and well-being is manifested in a culture of positivity emerging from meanings made in people’s embeddedness in relationships and life contexts. Interconnectedness is a fundamental quality of being human, and to a great extent determines people’s quality of life and meaning experiences. We adopted a broad conceptualization of quality of life including a eudaimonic well-being perspective in which meaning and positive relationships play a core role. We described a Meaning and Relatedness Well-being model (M&RW) comprising of meaning and relatedness as core facets, with assumed dynamic interactions between intrapersonal, interpersonal, social, community and ecosystem levels within the intertwinedness of biological and cultural situatedness. We used the M&RW model as backdrop to illustrate interconnectedness as a way of being well particularly in African contexts as manifested in lay people’s experiences drawing from previous empirical research.


Meaning Relationships Relatedness Interconnections Model Quality of life African contexts Lay people’s experiences 


  1. Algoe, S. B., Gable, S. L., & Maisel, N. C. (2010). It’s the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 17, 217–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arcidiacono, C., & Di Martino, S. (2016). A critical analysis of happiness and well-being. Where we stand now, where we need to go. Community Psychology in Global Perspective, 2(1), 6–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aron, E. N., & Aron, A. (1996). Love and the expansion of the self: The state of the model. Personal Relationships, 3(1), 45–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Awasthi, P., Chauhan, R., & Verma, S. (2016). Meaningfulness in life span perspectives: An overview. Purushartha: A Journal of Management Ethics and Spirituality, 7(2), 98–113.Google Scholar
  5. Baloyi, L., & Mokobe-Rabothata, M. (2014). The African conception of death: A cultural implication. Proceedings from the 21st International Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, 232–241.Google Scholar
  6. Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Landau, M. J. (2018). Finding the meaning of meaning: Emerging insights on four grand questions. Review of General Psychology, 22(1), 1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., Aaker, J. L., & Garbinsky, E. N. (2013). Some key differences between a happy life and a meaningful life. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(6), 505–516. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baumeister, R. F., Maranges, H. M., & Vohs, K. D. (2018). Human self as information agent: Functioning in a social environment based on shared meanings. Review of General Psychology, 22(1), 36–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, D., & Marecek, J. (2008). Positive psychology. Theory & Psychology, 18(5), 591–604. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berry, J. W., Segall, M. H., & Kagitcibasi, C. (1997). Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Social behavior and applications. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  13. Chiu, C., & Chen, J. (2004). Symbols and interactions: Application of the CCC model to culture, language, and social identity. In S. H. Ng, C. N. Candlin, & C. Y. Chiu (Eds.), Language matters: Communication, culture, and social identity (pp. 155–182). Hong Kong, China: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  14. Christopher, J. C., & Hickinbottom, S. (2008). Positive psychology, ethnocentrism, and the disguised ideology of individualism. Theory & Psychology, 18(5), 563–589. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Copeland-Linder, N. (2006). Stress among black women in a South African township: The protective role of religion. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(5), 577–599. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornell, A. W., & McGavin, B. (2008). Inner relationship focusing. The Folio A Journal for Focusing and Experiential Therapy, 21(1), 21–33.Google Scholar
  17. Cramm, J., Møller, V., & Nieboer, A. (2010). Improving subjective well-being of the poor in the Eastern Cape. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(7), 1012–1019. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cruz, M. R., & Sonn, C. (2011). Decolonizing culture in community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 47(1–2), 203–214. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Czekierda, K., Banik, A., Park, C. L., & Luszczynska, A. (2017). Meaning in life and physical health: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology Revolution, 11(4), 387–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dambrun, M. (2017). Self-centeredness and selflessness: Happiness correlates and mediating psychological processes. PeerJ, 5, e3306. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dambrun, M., Ricard, M., Despres, G., Drelon, E., Gibelin, E., Gibelin, M., et al. (2012). Measuring happiness: From fluctuating happiness to authentic-durable happiness. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dandala, M. H. (2009). Cows never die. Embracing African cosmology in the process of economic growth. In M. F. Murove (Ed.), African ethics: An anthology of comparative and applied ethics (pp. 63–84). Scottsville, South Africa: University of Kwazulu-Natal Press.Google Scholar
  23. Delle Fave, A. (2014). Harmony. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 2695–2697). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Delle Fave, A. (2017). Happiness lies in the middle: Evidence from theories and empirical findings, Keynote (F. Diener Lecture). Paper presented at the ISQOLS2017 Annual Conference on Quality of Life: Towards a better Society, Innsbruck, Austria.Google Scholar
  25. Delle Fave, A., & Massimini, F. (2015). Cultural change and human behaviour: Evolution or development? Crossing the border. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(1), 41–52.Google Scholar
  26. Delle Fave, A., & Soosai-Nathan, L. (2014). Meaning as inter-connectedness: Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(1), 33–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Delle Fave, A., Wissing, M., Brdar, I., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Freire, T. (2013). Cross-cultural perceptions of meaning and goals in adulthood: Their roots and relations with happiness. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonia (pp. 227–248). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Wissing, M. P., Araujo, U., Castro Solano, A., Freire, T., et al. (2016). Lay definitions of happiness across nations: The primacy of inner harmony and relational connectedness. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Delle Fave, A., Bassi, M., Allegri, B., Cilia, S., Falautano, M., Goretti, B., et al. (2017). Beyond disease: Happiness, goals, and meanings among persons with multiple sclerosis and their caregivers. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Demirci, İ., & Ekşi, H. (2018). Keep calm and be happy: A mixed method study from character strengths to well-being. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 18, 303–354. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dieleman, H. (2015). Transdisciplinary hermeneutics; working from the inner self, creating ecologies of knowing. Atlas, Transdisciplinary Journal of Engineering & Science, 6, 72–85.Google Scholar
  32. Fincham, F. D., & Beach, S. R. H. (2010). Of memes and marriage: Toward a positive relationship science. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 2, 4–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Finkenthal, M. (2016). Disciplinarian thinking, inter-disciplinarity and multi-disciplinarity revisited, with complexity in mind. In M. Micle & C. Mesaros (Eds.), Communication today: An overview from online journalism to applied philosophy (pp. 260–265). Budapest, Hungary: Trivent Publishing. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fowers, B. J. (2010). Instrumentalism and psychology. Theory & Psychology, 20(1), 102–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fowers, B. J. (2012). Placing virtue and the human good in psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 32(1), 1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fowers, B. J., & Anderson, A. R. (2018). Aristotelian philia, contemporary friendship and some resources for studying close relationships. In T. Harisson & D. I. Walker (Eds.), The theory and practice of virtue education (pp. 184–196). London, UK: Routledge. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gable, S. L., & Gosnell, C. L. (2011). The positive side of close relationships. In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan, & M. F. Steger (Eds.), Designing positive psychology: Taking stock and moving forward (pp. 265–279). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gable, S. L., & Reis, H. T. (2010). Good news! Capitalizing on positive events in an interpersonal context. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 195–257.Google Scholar
  39. Gable, S. L., Gonzaga, G. C., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will you be there for me when things go right? Supportive responses to positive event disclosures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(5), 904–917. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gendlin, E. T. (1996). Focusing-oriented psychotherapy: A manual of the experiential method. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  41. George, L. S., & Park, C. L. (2016). Meaning in life as comprehension, purpose, and mattering: Toward integration and new research questions. Review of General Psychology, 20(3), 205–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gere, J., & Macdonald, G. (2013). Assessing relationship quality across cultures: An examination of measurement equivalence. Personal Relationships, 20(3), 422–442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greeff, A. P., & Loubser, K. (2008). Spirituality as a resiliency quality in Xhosa-speaking families in South Africa. Journal of Religion and Health, 47(3), 288–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gyekye, K. (1995). An essay on African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Harrell, S. P. (2015). Culture, wellness, and world “PEaCE”: An introduction to person-environment-and-culture-emergence theory. Community Psychology in Global Perspective, 1(1), 16–49.Google Scholar
  46. Harrell, S. P. (2018). ‘Being human together’: Positive relationships in the context of diversity, culture, and collective well-being. In M. A. Warren & S. I. Donaldson (Eds.), Toward a positive psychology of relationships: New directions in theory and research (pp. 247–284). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  47. Heine, S. J., Proulx, T., & Vohs, K. D. (2006). The meaning maintenance model: On the coherence of social motivations. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(32), 88–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Held, B. S. (2016). The negative side of positive psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 44(1), 9–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Held, B. S. (2017). Positive psychology’s a priori problem. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(3), 313–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Helne, T., & Hirvilammi, T. (2015). Wellbeing and sustainability: A relational approach. Sustainable Development, 23(3), 167–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hershfield, H. E., Scheibe, S., Sims, T. L., & Carstensen, L. L. (2013). When feeling bad can be good: Mixed emotions benefit physical health across adulthood. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(1), 54–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Herzlich, C. (2018). A journey in the field of health: From social psychology to multi-disciplinarity. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(3), 386–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ho, M., Cheung, F. M., & Cheung, S. F. (2010). The role of meaning in life and optimism in promoting well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(5), 658–663. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson, J., & Wood, A. M. (2015). Integrating positive and clinical psychology: Viewing human functioning as continua from positive to negative can benefit clinical assessment, interventions and understandings of resilience. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41(3), 335–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Joshanloo, M. (2010). Investigation of the contribution of spirituality and religiousness to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in Iranian young adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(6), 915–930. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Karasawa, M., Curhan, K. B., Markus, H. R., Kitayama, S. S., Love, G. D., Radler, B. T., et al. (2011). Cultural perspectives on aging and well-being: A comparison of Japan and the United States. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 73(1), 73–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kashima, Y. (2014). How can you capture cultural dynamics? Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 995. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keyes, C. L. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(2), 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kimhi, S. (2016). Levels of resilience: Associations among individual, community, and national resilience. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(2), 164–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. King, L. A., Hicks, J. A., Krull, J. L., & Del Gaiso, A. K. (2006). Positive affect and the experience of meaning in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1), 179–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. King, L. A., Heintzelman, S. J., & Ward, S. J. (2016). Beyond the search for meaning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(4), 211–216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kuppens, P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgment across nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(1), 66–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lambert, N. M., Stillman, T. F., Hicks, J. A., Kamble, S., Baumeister, R. F., & Fincham, F. D. (2013). To belong is to matter: Sense of belonging enhances meaning in life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(11), 1418–1427. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lifton, R. J. (1979). The broken connection: On death and the continuity of life. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  65. Lomas, T. (2016). Positive psychology – the second wave. The Psychologist, 29, 536–539.Google Scholar
  66. Lomas, T. (2018). The quiet virtues of sadness: A selective theoretical and interpretative appreciation of its potential contribution to wellbeing. New Ideas in Psychology, 49, 18–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lomas, T., & Ivtzan, I. (2015). Second wave positive psychology: Exploring the positive–negative dialectics of wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(4), 1753–1768. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Madsen, K. B. (1988). A history of psychology in metascientific perspective. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  69. Majors, K. (2012). Friendships: The power of positive alliance. In S. Roffey (Ed.), Positive relationships: Evidence based practice across the world (pp. 127–143). Dotrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Martela, F., & Steger, M. F. (2016). The three meanings of meaning in life: Distinguishing coherence, purpose, and significance. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(5), 531–545. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marujo, H. Á., & Neto, L. M. (2014). Felicitas Publica and community well-being: Nourishing relational goods through dialogic conversations between deprived and privileged populations. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(1), 102–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mason, H. D. (2013). Meaning in life within an African context: A mixed method study. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(4), 635–638. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McNulty, J. K., & Fincham, F. D. (2012). Beyond positive psychology? Toward a contextual view of psychological processes and well-being. American Psychologist, 67(2), 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Metz, T. (2015). Précis of meaning in life: An analytic study. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 8(2), 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meunier, V., & Baker, W. (2012). Positive couple relationships: The evidence for long-lasting relationship satisfaction and happiness. In S. Roffey (Ed.), Positive relationships: Evidence based practice across the world (pp. 73–89). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mikulincer, M., Florian, V., & Hirschberger, G. (2004). The terror of death and the quest for love: An existential perspective on close relationships. In J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, T. Pyszczynski, J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of experimental existential psychology (pp. 287–304). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  77. Nafstad, H. E., Blakar, R. M., Carlquist, E., Phelps, J. M., & Rand-Hendriksen, K. (2009). Globalization, neo-liberalism and community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43(1–2), 162–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Neff, K. D., & Costigan, A. P. (2014). Self-compassion, wellbeing, and happiness. Psychologie in Österreich, 2(3), 113–119.Google Scholar
  79. Newton, T., & McIntosh, D. N. (2013). Unique contributions of religion to meaning. In J. A. Hicks & C. Routledge (Eds.), The experience of meaning in life (pp. 257–269). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nicolescu, B. (2010). Methodology of transdisciplinarity – levels of reality, logic of the included middle and complexity. Transdisciplinary Journal of Engineering & Science, 1(1), 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nicolescu, B. (2012). Transdisciplinarity: The hidden third, between the subject and the object. Human & Social Studies, 1(2), 13–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nicolescu, B. (2014a). From modernity to cosmodernity: Science, culture, and spirituality. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  83. Nicolescu, B. (2014b). Methodology of transdisciplinarity. World Futures, 70(3–4), 186–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nicolescu, B. (2015a). The hidden third and the multiple splendor of being. In V. Bazhanov & R. W. Scholz (Eds.), Transdisciplinarity in philosophy and science: Approaches, problems, prospects (pp. 62–79). Moscow, Russia: Russia Navigator.Google Scholar
  85. Nicolescu, B. (2015b). Transdisciplinary methodology of the dialogue between people, cultures, and spiritualities. Human & Social Studies, 4(2), 15–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nwoye, A. (2015). What is African psychology the psychology of? Theory & Psychology, 25(1), 96–116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nwoye, A. (2017). An Africentric theory of human personhood. Psychology in Society, 54, 42–66.Google Scholar
  88. O’Connell, B. H., O’Shea, D., & Gallagher, S. (2016). Enhancing social relationships through positive psychology activities: A randomised controlled trial. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(2), 149–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ogbonnaya, A. O. (1994). Person as community: An African understanding of the person as an intrapsychic community. Journal of Black Psychology, 20(1), 75–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pawelski, J. O. (2016a). Defining the ‘positive’ in positive psychology: Part I. A descriptive analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(4), 339–356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pawelski, J. O. (2016b). Defining the ‘positive’ in positive psychology: Part II. A normative analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(4), 357–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Prilleltensky, I., & Prilleltensky, O. (2007). Webs of well-being: The interdependence of personal, relational, organizational and communal well-being. In J. Haworth & G. Hart (Eds.), Well-being: Individual, community and social perspectives (pp. 57–76). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rathi, N., & Rastogi, R. (2007). Meaning in life and psychosocial wellbeing in pre adolescents and adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 33(1), 31–38.Google Scholar
  94. Reker, G. T., & Wong, P. T. P. (2012). Personal meaning in life and psychosocial adaptation in the later years. In P. T. P. Wong (Ed.), The human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications (pp. 433–456). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. Reker, G. T., & Woo, L. C. (2011). Personal meaning orientations and psychosocial adaptation in older adults. SAGE Open, 1(1), 1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Richardson, F. C. (2012). On psychology and virtue ethics. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 32(1), 24–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Richardson, F. C., & Guignon, C. B. (2008). Positive psychology and philosophy of social science. Theory & Psychology, 18(5), 605–627. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rojas, M. (2004). The complexity of well-being: A life satisfaction conception and a domains-of-life approach. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Researching Well-being in Developing Countries, Bremen, Germany.Google Scholar
  99. Rojas, M. (2014). Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  100. Rojas, M. (2018). Indicators of people’s well-being. Social Indicators Research, 135(3), 941–950. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ryff, C. D. (2014). Self realisation and meaning making in the face of adversity: A eudaimonic approach to human resilience. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(1), 1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (1998). The contours of positive human health. Psychological Inquiry, 9(1), 1–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2000). Interpersonal flourishing: A positive health agenda for the new millennium. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(1), 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, D. G. (2004). Positive health: Connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. Biological Sciences, 359, 1383–1394. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schimmack, U., Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2002). Cultural influences on the relation between pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions: Asian dialectic philosophies or individualism-collectivism? Cognition & Emotion, 16(6), 705–719.Google Scholar
  107. Schlegel, R. J., & Hicks, J. A. (2016). Reflections on the scientific study of meaning in life. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 30(1), 26–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schlegel, R. J., Hicks, J. A., King, L. A., & Arndt, J. (2011). Feeling like you know who you are: Perceived true selfknowledge and meaning in life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(6), 745–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  110. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Selvam, S. G. (2013). Towards religious spirituality. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 12(36), 129–152.Google Scholar
  112. Selvam, S. G. (2015). Pastoral care of the family in the light of sound psychology. Paper presented at the Tangaza Conference on Family Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  113. Selvam, S. G., & Collicutt, J. (2013). The ubiquity of the character strengths in African traditional religion: A thematic analysis. In H. H. Knoop & A. D. Fave (Eds.), Well-being and cultures: A positive psychology perspective (pp. 83–102). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Slife, B. D., & Richardson, F. C. (2008). Problematic ontological underpinnings of positive psychology. Theory & Psychology, 18(5), 699–723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Slife, B. D., O’Grady, K. A., & Kosits, R. D. (2017). The hidden worldviews of psychology’s theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Steger, M. F. (2012). Experiencing meaning in life: Optimal functioning at the nexus of well-being, psychopathology, and spirituality. In P. T. P. Wong (Ed.), The human quest for meaning (2nd ed., pp. 165–184). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  117. Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stroink, M., & DeCicco, T. (2011). Culture, religion, and the underlying value dimensions of the metapersonal self-construal. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14(9), 917–934. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tamir, M., & Gross, J. J. (2011). Beyond pleasure and pain? Emotion regulation and positive psychology. In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan, & M. F. Steger (Eds.), Designing positive psychology: Taking stock and moving forward (pp. 89–100). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Theron, L. C., & Theron, A. M. C. (2014). Meaning-making and resilience: Case studies of a multifaceted process. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(1), 24–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  122. Triandis, H. C. (1996). The psychological measurement of cultural syndromes. American Psychologist, 51(4), 407–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Uchida, Y., & Ogihara, Y. (2012). Personal or interpersonal construal of happiness: A cultural psychological perspective. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2(4), 354–369. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Urata, Y. (2015). A psychological model to determine meaning in life and meaning of life. Journal of Philosophy of Life, 5(3), 215–227.Google Scholar
  125. Van Tongeren, D. R., DeWall, C. N., Green, J. D., Cairo, A. H., Davis, D. E., & Hook, J. N. (2018). Self-regulation facilitates meaning in life. Review of General Psychology, 22(1), 95–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. VanderWeele, T. J. (2017). On the promotion of human flourishing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1–9. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Walsh, K., O’Shea, E., Scharf, T., & Shucksmith, M. (2014). Exploring the impact of informal practices on social exclusion and age-friendliness for older people in rural communities. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 24(1), 37–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wang, S.-Y., Wong, Y. J., & Yeh, K.-H. (2016). Relationship harmony, dialectical coping, and nonattachment: Chinese indigenous well-being and mental health. The Counseling Psychologist, 44(1), 78–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wang, S.-Y., Wong, Y. J., Yeh, K.-H., & Wang, L. (2018). What makes a meaningful life? Examining the effects of interpersonal harmony, dialectical coping, and nonattachment. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Warren, M. A., & Donaldson, S. I. (2018). Toward a positive psychology of relationships: New directions in theory and research. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  131. White, S. C. (2010). Analysing wellbeing: A framework for development practice. Development in Practice, 20(2), 158–172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. White, S. C. (2017). Relational wellbeing: Re-centring the politics of happiness, policy and the self. Policy & Politics, 45(2), 121–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wilson, A., & Mittelmark, M. B. (2013). Resources for adjusting well to work migration: Women from northern Ghana working in Head Porterage in Greater Accra. Africa Today, 59(4), 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wilson, A., & Somhlaba, N. Z. (2016). Dynamics and perceptions of social support and their impact on well-being: A qualitative study of adolescents in Northern Ghana. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 18(5), 263–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wilson, A., & Somhlaba, N. Z. (2017). Gender, age, religion and positive mental health among adolescents in a Ghanaian socio-cultural context. Child Indicators Research. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wilson, A., Wissing, M. P., Schutte, L., & Kruger, I. M. (2018a). Understanding goal motivations in deprived contexts: Perspectives of adults in two rural South African communities. Applied Research in Quality of Life. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wilson, A., Wissing, M. P., & Schutte, L. (2018b). “We help each other”: Relational patterns among older individuals in south African samples. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1–20.
  138. Wissing, M. P. (2014). Meaning and relational well-being: A reflection on the state of the art and a way forward. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(1), 115–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wissing, M. P. (2016). The dance of sun and shadow in multicultural well-being: Cultures of positivity in South Africa (Invited keynote). Paper presented at the Italian Positive Psychology Conference Cesena, Italy.Google Scholar
  140. Wissing, M. P. (2018). Embracing well-being in diverse contexts: The Third Wave of positive psychology (Invited speaker). Paper presented at the First Africa Positive Psychology Conference Potchefstroom, South Africa.Google Scholar
  141. Wissing, M. P., & Temane, Q. M. (2013). The prevalence of levels of well-being revisited in an African context. In C. L. M. Keyes (Ed.), Mental well-being: International contributions to the study of positive mental health (pp. 71–90). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wissing, M. P., Khumalo, I. P., & Chigeza, S. C. (2014). Meaning as perceived and experienced by an African student group. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 24(1), 92–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wong, P. T. P. (2011). Positive psychology 2.0: Towards a balanced interactive model of the good life. Canadian Psychology, 52(2), 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wong, P. T. P. (2016). Acceptance, transcendence, and yin-yang dialectics: The three basic tenets of second wave positive psychology.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marié P. Wissing
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lusilda Schutte
    • 1
  • Angelina Wilson Fadiji
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health ResearchNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa
  2. 2.Education and Skills Development UnitHuman Sciences Research CouncilCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations