Definition and Risk Factors of Bleeding

  • Michael I. Meesters
  • Christa Boer


The objective of this chapter is to discuss different definitions and predictors of bleeding in cardiac surgery. Bleeding complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery may affect outcome. The first step in patient blood management is to identify patients at high risk for bleeding complications. This chapter describes risk factors for bleeding in cardiac surgery, and divides these factors into modifiable and non-modifiable factors. Moreover, risk prediction scores for perioperative bleeding and specific risk factors for bleeding are described.


Bleeding Hemorrhage Risk factors Predictors Volume loss 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael I. Meesters
    • 1
  • Christa Boer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyAmsterdam UMC, VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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