Conclusion: Managerializing the Status Quo as Security Blanket

  • Glenn Toh


In this final chapter, an important observation is made that English-speaking Western TESOL, its outworkings and underlying ideologies are a formidable nemesis to any transformative effort that might be gallantly undertaken to make English teaching more humanizing and equitable. Superimposed on a Japanese ethos, English-speaking Western TESOL operates hand-in-hand with nihonjinron to preserve a status quo that invariably upholds Japanese nationalistic culturalist ideologies. Japan, for all its hawkishness and resistance against matters foreign seems to have few qualms about welcoming English-speaking Western TESOL to its culturally well-fortified shores. With its native speakerist beliefs in tow, it serves as a subtle yet sardonic way of reinforcing Japaneseness, furnishing and humoring conservative Japan with the semblance of internationalization it covets while parading a tokenized form of diversity.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glenn Toh
    • 1
  1. 1.Language and Communication CentreNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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