How Does the Use of Non-Host Plants Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Communities and Levels and Nature of Glomalin in Crop Rotation Systems Established in Acid Andisols?
Acidity and P deficiency are the two most serious limitations of agricultural soil productivity worldwide especially in developing countries where food production is crucial. The main negative effect is assigned to free Al where water and nutrient acquisition are severely restricted. In Chile, the acid soils, like Andisols and Ultisols, account for approximately 43% of agricultural land being cereals the main crops produced in rotation with legumes, rapeseed and lupine. These soils have high P-adsorption capacity and high Al saturation. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiosis that helps plants to acquire nutrients being the most important the increase in P absorption. In addition, it has been recently suggested that AM fungi may promote Al resistance to their plant hosts through: a) the increase of root exudation of short chain organic anions with chelant capacity for Al, excluding Al at cell level; b) the increase on P root absorption and consequently increasing P/Al ratio; and c) the release of glomalin. Therefore, AM appear to confer higher Al tolerance and higher P efficiency to host plants. Nevertheless, some species belonging to these families are used by farmers in rotation systems and scarce information have been reported related to the negative effects on AM fungi.
KeywordsAl-phytotoxicity Al-tolerance AMF propagules
Financial support of FONDECYT 11170641 (P. Aguilera), FONDECYT 1170264 (P. Cornejo), FONDECYT 11160385 (A. Seguel) and FONDECYT 1191551 (F. Borie) Grants from Comisión Nacional Científica y Tecnológica de Chile.
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