Advertisement

Endocrine Disorders

  • Alessandra GambineriEmail author
  • Paola Altieri
  • Daniela Ibarra-Gasparini
Chapter

Abstract

The different balance in the sex hormones, androgens and estrogens, is a cardinal aspect of the biology of gender difference and plays a fundamental role in maintaining the physiological state at each age of life [1]. However, the imbalance in sex hormones is involved in some metabolic diseases, with androgens playing an interesting sexually dimorphic role. The sexual dimorphism of androgens in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders leads to inequalities in both preventive strategies and treatment between women and men.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome Diabetes Androgens Estrogens Gender 

References

  1. 1.
    Federman DD. The biology of human sex differences. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1507–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Reilly MW, House PJ, Tomlinson JW. Understanding androgen action in adipose tissue. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;143:277–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kloting N, Bluher M. Adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2014;15:277–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Corbould A. Chronic testosterone treatment induces selective insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipocytes of women. J Endocrinol. 2007;192:585–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hernandez-Morante JJ, Perez-de-Heredia F, Lujan JA, Zamora S, Garaulet M. Role of DHEA-S on body fat distribution: gender- and depot-specific stimulation of adipose tissue lipolysis. Steroids. 2008;73:209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Corton M, Botella-Carretero JI, Benguria A, Villuendas G, Zaballos A, San Millan JL, Escobar-Morreale HF, Peral B. Differential gene expression profile in omental adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:328–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corton M, Botella-Carretero JI, Lopez JA, Camafeita E, San Millan JL, Escobar-Morreale HF, Peral B. Proteomic analysis of human omental adipose tissue in the polycystic ovary syndrome using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:651–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schiffer L, Kempegowda P, Arlt W, O’Reilly MW. The sexually dimorphic role of androgens in human metabolic disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;177:R125–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rincon J, Holmäng A, Wahlström EO, Lönnroth P, Björntorp P, Zierath JR, Wallberg-Henriksson H. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle after oophorectomy and additional testosterone treatment. Diabetes. 1996;45:615–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mauvais-Jarvis F, Clegg DJ, Hevener AL. The role of estrogens in control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Endocr Rev. 2013;34:309–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Conway G, Dewailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Franks S, Gambineri A, Kelestimur F, Macut D, Micic D, Pasquali R, et al. The polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;171:P1–P29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tosi F, Bonora E, Moghetti P. Insulin resistance in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a comparison between euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and surrogate indexes. Hum Reprod. 2017;32:2515–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gambineri A, Repaci A, Patton L, Grassi I, Pocognoli P, Cognigni GE, Pasqui F, Pagotto U, Pasquali R. Prominent role of low HDL-cholesterol in explaining the high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19:797–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang ET, Calderon-Margalit R, Cedars MI, Daviglus ML, Merkin SS, Schreiner PJ, Sternfeld B, Wellons M, Schwartz SM, Lewis CE, Williams OD, Siscovick DS, Bibbins-Domingo K. Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk for long-term diabetes and dyslipidemia. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gambineri A, Patton L, Altieri P, Pagotto U, Pizzi C, Manzoli L, Pasquali R. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes: results from a long-term prospective study. Diabetes. 2012;61:2369–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morgan CL, Jenkins-Jones S, Currie CJ, Rees DA. Evaluation of adverse outcome in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome versus matched, reference controls: a retrospective, observational study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3251–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Palmert MR, Gordon CM, Kartashov AI, Legro RS, Emans SJ, Dunaif A. Screening for abnormal glucose tolerance in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:1017–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gambineri A, Patton L, Vaccina A, Cacciari M, Morselli-Labate AM, Cavazza C, Pagotto U, Pasquali R. Treatment with flutamide, metformin, and their combination added to a hypocaloric diet in overweight-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, 12-month, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3970–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Muka T, Nano J, Jaspers L, Meun C, Bramer WM, Hofman A, Dehghan A, Kavousi M, Laven JS, Franco OH. Associations of steroid sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin with the risk of Type 2 diabetes in women: a population-based cohort study and meta-analysis. Diabetes. 2017;66:577–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith IE, Dowsett M. Aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2431–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ibarra-Gasparini D, Altieri P, Scarano E, Perri A, Morselli-Labate AM, Pagotto U, Mazzanti L, Pasquali R, Gambineri A. New insights on diabetes in Turner syndrome: results from an observational study in adulthood. Endocrine. 2018;59(3):651–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gupte AA, Pownall HJ, Hamilton DJ. Estrogen: an emerging regulator of insulin action and mitochondrial function. J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015:916585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, Jackson RD, Beresford SA, Howard BV, Johnson KC, Kotchen JM, Ockene J, Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2002;288:321–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, Furberg C, Herrington D, Riggs B, Vittinghoff E. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. J Am Med Assoc. 1998;280:605–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    de Villiers TJ, Hall JE, Pinkerton JV, Pérez SC, Rees M, Yang C, Pierroz DD. Revised global consensus statement on menopausal hormone therapy. Maturitas. 2016;91:153–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riecher-Rössler A. Sex and gender differences in mental disorders. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017;4:8–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Riecher-Rössler A, Kulkarni J. Estrogens and gonadal function in schizophrenia and related psychoses. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2011;8:155–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Pasquali R. Obesity and androgens: facts and perspectives. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:1319–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Pasquali R, Gambineri A. Glucose intolerance states in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013;36:648–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Pasquali R, Vicennati V, Gambineri A, Pagotto U. Sex-dependent role of glucocorticoids and androgens in the pathophysiology of human obesity. Int J Obes. 2008;32:1764–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandra Gambineri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paola Altieri
    • 1
  • Daniela Ibarra-Gasparini
    • 1
  1. 1.Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Science, S. Orsola-Malpighi HospitalAlma Mater University of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations