Other Globes pp 125-147 | Cite as

Visions of Global Modernity in Hispano-Filipino Literature

  • Irene Villaescusa-Illán
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Globalization, Culture and Society book series (PSGCS)


This chapter analyzes two works of Philippine literature written in Spanish in the first part of the twentieth century, focusing on how they invoke global modernity. Paz Mendoza’s travelogue Notas de viaje (1929) [Travel Notes] and Jesús Balmori’s novel Los pajaros de fuego. Una novela Filipina de la Guerra (1945) [Birds of Fire, A Filipino Novel about War] offer contrasting visions of the Philippines’ present and future, but they both relate this vision to the models of modern nationhood on offer in the first half of the twentieth century. Drawing selectively on aspects of countries and cultures from around the globe, Mendoza and Balmori reveal how a variety of competing imaginations of Filipino nationhood sought to make the future independent Philippines part of the community of modern nations. The notion of global modernity helps to analyze Mendoza’s and Balmori’s engagement with a centralized global modernity from a location that, in relation to both, was emphatically peripheralized.

Works Cited

  1. Agoncillo, Teodoro A. 1965. The Fateful Years: Japan’s Adventure in the Philippines, 1941–45. Quezon City: R. P. Garcia Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  2. Agoncillo, Teodoro A., and Milagros C. Guerrero. 1969. History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: Malaya Books.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, Benedict. 2005. Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-colonial Imagination. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  4. Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. 2002. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-colonial Literatures. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Balmori, Jesús. 2010. Pájaros de fuego, una novela filipina de la guerra. Manila: Instituto Cervantes.Google Scholar
  6. Bernal, Rafael. 1965. Mexico en Filipinas: estudio de una transculturación. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Google Scholar
  7. Blanco, John D. 2004. Bastards of the Unfinished Revolution: Bolívar’s Ismael and Rizal’s Martí at the Turn of the Twenties Century. Radical History Review 89 (2004): 92–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Casanova, Pascale. 2005. Literature as a World. New Left Review 31: 71–90.Google Scholar
  9. De la Peña, Wystan. 2011. Revisiting the Golden Age of Fil-Hispanic Literature (1898–1941). In Pilipinas Muna! Филиппины Пpeждe вceгo!: К 80- лeтию Гeннaдия Eвгeньeвичa Paчкoвa, 119–127. Saint Petersburg: MAE PAH.Google Scholar
  10. del Río, Benigno. 1950. Siete días en el infierno (En manos de la Gestapo Nipona). Manila: Nueva Era Press.Google Scholar
  11. Donoso Jiménez, Isaac. 2010. Introducción. In Pájaros de fuego, una novela filipina de la guerra, ed. Jesús Balmori, vii-xciv. Manila: Instituto Cervantes.Google Scholar
  12. Hagimoto, Koichi. 2013. Between Empires: Martí, Rizal, and the Intercolonial Alliance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lifshey, Adam. 2011. Allegory and Archipelago: Jesús Balmori’s “Los Pájaros de Fuego” and the Global Vantages of Filipino Literature in Spanish. Kritika Kultura 7: 5–22.Google Scholar
  14. López, Antonio. 1947. El terror amarillo en Filipinas. Barcelona: Juventud.Google Scholar
  15. López-Calvo, Ignacio. 2007. Alternative Orientalisms in Latin America and Beyond. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. López Fernández, Laura. 2018. Lenguas en contacto influencias léxicas del español en el tagalo, el chabacano, el chamorro y el Cebuano. Tonos digital: Revista electrónica de estudios filológicos 35.Google Scholar
  17. Lumbera, Bienvenido. 1984. Revaluation: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema & Popular Culture. Manila: Index Press.Google Scholar
  18. Mendoza Guazón, M. Paz. 1949. Notas de viaje. Manila: Benipayo Press.Google Scholar
  19. Mojares, Resil B. 2006. Brains of the Nation: Pedro Paterno, T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Isabelo de los Reyes, and the Production of Modern Knowledge. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Moretti, Franco. 2000. Conjunctures on World Literature. New Left Review 1: 54–68.Google Scholar
  21. Morton, Luis. 1995. The Fall of the Philippines: U.S. Army in World War II, The War in the Pacific. Edited by Ken Roberts Greenfield. Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History.Google Scholar
  22. Ortiz, Fernando. 1940 [1987]. El Contrapunteo del tabaco y del azucar. Edited by Julio Le Riverend. Venezuela: Biblioteca Ayacucho.Google Scholar
  23. Ortiz, Armengol P. 1999. Letras en Filipinas. Brussels: Ediciones Polifemo.Google Scholar
  24. Parry, Benita. 2009. Aspects of Peripheral Modernisms. ARIEL: A Review of International English Literature 40 (1): 27–55.Google Scholar
  25. Polo, Elena P. 2000. The Negative Fire vs. the Affirming Flame: American and Filipino Novels on the Pacific War. Manila: Universidad de Santo Tomás.Google Scholar
  26. Pratt, Mary Louise. 1991. Arts of the Contact Zone. Profession 91: 33–40.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 2002. Modernity and Periphery: Toward a Global and Relational Analysis. In Beyond Dichotomies: Histories, Identities, Cultures, and the Challenge of Globalization, ed. Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, 21–48. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  28. Rafael, Vicente. 2000. White Love and Other Events in Filipino History. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Rama, Ángel. 1982. Transculturación narrativa en América Latina. México: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  30. Reyes, José G. 1947. Terrorismo redención. Casos concretos de atrocidades cometidas por los japoneses en Filipinas. Manila: Cacho Hermanos.Google Scholar
  31. Schwartz, Roberto. 2001. A Master on the Periphery of Capitalism: Machado De Assis. Translated and Introduction by John Gledson. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Villaescusa-Illán, Irene. 2019. Transcultural orientalism: Writing the Orient from the Philippines and Latin America. Transpacific Connections of Philippine Literature in Spanish, Unitas 92. Manila: University of Santo Tomas.Google Scholar
  33. Zialcita, Fernando N. 2005. Authentic Though Not Exotic: Essays on Filipino Identity. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irene Villaescusa-Illán
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations