Advertisement

Imagining Global Non-violent Consciousness

  • Amentahru WahlrabEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Wahlrab explores the understudied question of the function of the global imaginary to facilitate the rise of a global non-violent consciousness. By summarizing the tension in the literature between advocates of the national imaginary and the global imaginary, Wahlrab shows that non-violent social movements imagine themselves to be challenges to national forces and global forces. He also suggests that the national imaginary is not enough to explain the interconnected wave of non-violent protests that erupted in 2010. ‘Imagining Global Non-violent Consciousness’ finds that non-violent political activists from across the globe acknowledge their kindred relationship with each other and endeavor to support the flourishing of local and global social justice.

References

  1. Abrahamian, Ervand. 2009. Mass Protests in the Iranian Revolution, 1977–1979. In Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, ed. Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash, 162–178. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Achcar, Gilbert. 2013. The People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ackerman, Peter. 2017. Strategic Nonviolence Is not Civil Resistance. International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, 21 September. https://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/blog_post/strategic-nonviolence-not-civil-resistance/
  4. Al-Zubaidi, Layla, Matthew Cassel, and Nemonie Craven Roderick, eds. 2013. Diaries of an Unfinished Revolution: Voices from Tunis to Damascus. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. and extended ed. London/New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  6. Appadurai, Arjun. 2006. Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beinin, Joel. 2012. Egyptian Workers and January 25th: A Social Movement in Historical Context. Social Research 79 (2): 323–348.Google Scholar
  8. Beinin, Joel, and Frédéric Vairel. 2011. Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Benjamin, Walter, and Hannah Arendt. 1986. Illuminations. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  10. Bonney, Richard. 2004. Jihād: From Qur’ān to bin Lāden. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, David. 1998. Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Revised ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Original edition, 1992.Google Scholar
  13. Chanda, Nayan. 2007. Bound Together: How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Chen, Adrian. 2012. Mark Zuckerberg Takes Credit for Populist Revolutions Now That Facebook’s Gone Public. Gawker, 2 February. http://gawker.com/5881657/facebook-takes-credit-for-populist-revolutions-now-that-its-gone-public.
  15. Chenoweth, Erica, and Maria J. Stephan. 2011. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Costa, Rebecca D. 2011. Acclaimed Political Scientist, Francis Fukuyama, Forecasted Arab Uprising During Clinton Years. rebeccacosta.com, 5 May. http://www.rebeccacosta.com/press-room-francis-fukuyama-18.htm.
  17. Creveld, Martin Van. 1999. The Rise and Decline of the State. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Darian-Smith, Eve, and Philip C. McCarty. 2017. The Global Turn: Theories, Research Designs, and Methods for Global Studies. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  19. Diamond, Larry Jay, Marc F. Plattner, and Christopher Walker. 2016. Authoritarianism Goes Global: The Challenge to Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Engels, Jeremy. 2010. Enemyship: Democracy and Counter-Revolution in the Early Republic. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Engler, Mark, and Paul Engler. 2016. This Is an Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt Is Shaping the Twenty-first Century. New York: Nation Books.Google Scholar
  22. Fattor, Eric M. 2018. The Arab Uprisings and Twenty-First Century Global Crises: Is There an Emerging Network of Global Dissent? In U.S. Approaches to the Arab Uprisings: International Relations and Democracy Promotion, ed. Amentahru Wahlrab and Michael J. McNeal. London/New York: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  23. Fendius Elman, Miriam. 2012. The Arab Spring and the Future of Democracy in the Middle East: Rethinking Middle Eastern Studies. Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture 18 (1): 98–105.Google Scholar
  24. Finchelstein, Federico. 2017. From Fascism to Populism in History. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gardner, Lloyd C. 2011. The Road to Tahrir Square: Egypt and the United States From the Rise of Nasser to the Fall of Mubarak. New York: New Press. Distributed by Perseus Distribution.Google Scholar
  26. Gause, F. Gregory. 2011. Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability. Foreign Affairs 90 (4): 81–90.Google Scholar
  27. Gelvin, James L. 2012. The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Haas, Mark L., and David W. Lesch. 2012. The Arab Spring: Change and Resistance in the Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  29. Haddad, Bassam, Rosie Bsheer, and Ziad Abu-Rish. 2012. The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings: End of an Old Order? London/New York: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hinnebusch, Raymond. 2015. Introduction: Understanding the Consequences of the Arab Uprisings – Starting Points and Divergent Trajectories. Democratization 22 (2): 205–217.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2015.1010807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Howard, Philip N., and Muzammil M. Hussain. 2013. Democracy’s Fourth Wave?: Digital Media and the Arab Spring. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ishay, Micheline R. 2004. The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Jaspers, Karl. 1953. The origin and goal of history. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  34. King, Mary Elizabeth. 2007. A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and Nonviolent Resistance. New York: Nation Books.Google Scholar
  35. King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1991. In A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King, Jr, ed. James M. Washington. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.Google Scholar
  36. Klaas, Brian P. 2016. The Despot’s Accomplice: How the West Is Aiding and Abetting the Decline of Democracy. London: Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
  37. Lahoud, Nelly. 2013. Jihadi Discourse in the Wake of the Arab Spring. United States Military Academy West Point: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point.Google Scholar
  38. Lesch, David W. 2011. The Arab Spring—and Winter—in Syria. Global Change, Peace & Security 23 (3): 421–426.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14781158.2011.601859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lynch, Marc. 2012. The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. 1st ed. New York: PublicAffairs.Google Scholar
  40. Mallat, Chibli. 2007. March 2221: Lebanon’s Cedar Revolution: An Essay on Nonviolence and Justice. Beirut: LiR.Google Scholar
  41. Mallat, Chibli, and Edward Mortimer. 2016. The Background to Civil Resistance in the Middle East. In Civil Resistance in the Arab Spring: Triumphs and Disasters, ed. Adam Roberts, Michael J. Willis, Rory McCarthy, and Timothy Garton Ash, 1–29. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Marzouki, Yousri, and Olivier Oullier. 2012. Revolutionizing Revolutions: Virtual Collective Consciousness and the Arab Spring. Huffington Post, 17 July. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/yousri-marzouki/revolutionizing-revolutio_b_1679181.html.
  43. Mason, Paul. 2013. Why It’s Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions. Rev. and updated 2nd ed. London/New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  44. Morley, Jefferson. 2005. The Branding of Lebanon’s Revolution. Washington Post, 3 March. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A1911-2005Mar2.html.
  45. Noueihed, Lin, and Alex Warren. 2012. The Battle for the Arab Spring: Revolution, Counter-Revolution and the Making of a New Era. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Opinion. 2011. To the Occupy movement—The Occupiers of Tahrir Square are with you Comrades from Cairo. Guardian, 25 October. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/oct/25/occupy-movement-tahrir-square-cairo.
  47. Patomäki, Heikki, and Manfred B. Steger. 2010. Social Imaginaries and Big History: Towards a New Planetary Consciousness? Futures: A Journal of Policy, Planning, and Futures Studies 42: 1056–1063.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2010.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Philpott, Daniel. 2001. Revolutions in Sovereignty: How Ideas Shaped Modern International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Polanyi, Karl. 2001. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  50. Pollack, Kenneth M. 2011. The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East, Saban Center at the Brookings Institution book. Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  51. Price, Stuart. 2015. The Legacy of Dissent: Class, Gender and Austerity. In Contemporary Protest and the Legacy of Dissent, ed. Stuart Price and Ruth Sanz Sabido, 11–27. London/New York: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  52. Roberts, Adam, Michael J. Willis, Rory McCarthy, and Timothy Garton Ash, eds. 2016. Civil Resistance in the Arab Spring: Triumphs and Disasters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sharp, Gene. 1973. The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Boston: P. Sargent Publisher.Google Scholar
  54. ———. 1979. Gandhi as a Political Strategist: With Essays on Ethics and Politics. Boston: P. Sargent Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, Lydia. 2016. Arab Spring 5 Years on: Timeline of the Major Events and Uprisings in the Middle East. International Business Times, 25 January. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/arab-spring-5-years-timeline-major-events-uprisings-middle-east-1539085.
  56. Spruyt, Hendrik. 1994. The Sovereign State and its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Steger, Manfred B. 2000. Gandhi’s Dilemma: Nonviolent Principles and Nationalist Power. New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. ———. 2002. Globalism: The New Market Ideology. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  59. ———. 2005a. From Market Globalism to Imperial Globalism: Ideology and American Power After 9/11. Globalizations 2 (1): 31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. ———. 2005b. Imperial Globalism, Democracy, and the ‘Political Turn’. Political Theory 20 (10): 1–11.Google Scholar
  61. ———. 2008. The Rise of the Global Imaginary: Political Ideologies from the French Revolution to the Global War on Terror. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. ———. 2009. Globalisms: The Great Ideological Struggle of the Twenty-first Century. 3rd ed. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2017. Globalization: A Very Short Introduction. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Steger, Manfred B., and Amentahru Wahlrab. 2017. What Is Global Studies? Theory & Practice. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Steger, Manfred B., James Goodman, and Erin K. Wilson. 2013. Justice Globalism: Ideology, Crises, Policy. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  66. Stephan, Maria J. 2009. Civilian Jihad: Nonviolent Struggle, Democratization, and Governance in the Middle East. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stephan, Maria J., and Erica Chenoweth. 2008a. Why Civil Resistance Works. International Security 33 (1): 7–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. ———. 2008b. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. International Security 33 (1): 7–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taub, Amanda. 2016. A Central Conflict of 21st-Century Politics: Who Belongs? New York Times, 8 July. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/09/world/europe/a-central-conflict-of-21st-century-politics-who-belongs.html?_r=1.
  70. Taylor, Charles. 2004. Modern Social Imaginaries. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  71. United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect. 2017. Responsibility to Protect. United Nations, http://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/about-responsibility-to-protect.html. Accessed 18 Dec 2017.
  72. Wahlrab, Amentahru. 2014a. Nonviolence and Globalization. In The Sage Handbook of Globalization, ed. Manfred B. Steger, Paul Battersby, and Joseph M. Siracusa, 727–738. Los Angeles: SAGE.Google Scholar
  73. ———. 2014b. Speaking Truth to Power: Hip Hop and the African Awakening. In Hip Hop and Social Change in Africa: Ni Wakati, ed. Msia Kibona Clark and Mickie Mwanzia Koster, 49–63. New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  74. ———. 2017a. Fostering Global Security. In Rethinking Security in the Twentieth Century, ed. Edwin Daniel Jacob, 127–141. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. ———. 2017b. Imagining Global Nonviolence. Perspectives on Global Development & Technology 16 (1–2): 193–207.  https://doi.org/10.1163/15691497-12341429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. ———. 2018. Making Revolutionaries Out of ‘Safe Citizens’: Sovereignty, Political Violence, And the Arab Uprisings. In U.S. Approaches to the Arab Uprisings: International Relations and Democracy Promotion, ed. Amentahru Wahlrab and Michael J. McNeal. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  77. Wahlrab, Amentahru, and Michael J. McNeal, eds. 2018. U.S. Approaches to the Arab Uprisings: International Relations and Democracy Promotion. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  78. Weinert, Matthew S. 2015. Making Human: World Order and the Global Governance of Human Dignity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wieland, Carsten. 2012. Syria–A Decade of Lost Chances: Repression and Revolution from Damascus Spring to Arab Spring. Seattle: Cune Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political Science and HistoryThe University of Texas at TylerTylerUSA

Personalised recommendations