Advertisement

Small-scale Mining, the SDGs and Human Insecurity in Ghana

  • Isaac MensahEmail author
  • John Boakye-Danquah
  • Nurudeen Suleiman
  • Sena Nutakor
  • Muhammad Dan Suleiman
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)

Abstract

This chapter discusses small-scale mining in Ghana in the context of two intergovernmental development indicators—the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (SDGs) and the African Union’s Agenda 2063 (AU2063). Using the management and governance of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) activities in Ghana as a case study, we argue that the achievability of selected SDGs and the AU2063 aspirations in Ghana (and potentially in Africa more generally) depends on a political internalisation of a broader understanding of the (human) security of countries’ citizens and peoples. For example, the laws and regulations governing small-scale mining in Ghana are not normatively developed and offer little voice and benefit to host peoples and communities in areas of abundant natural resources. This results in numerous human security threats and concerns such as destruction of communities and their livelihoods, violent clashes and environmental degradation among many others. The chapter argues that the ASM sector needs to be understood as involving fundamental human security concerns as part of the broader national, regional and global sustainability discussions, rather than the sectorial perspective in which the discussion is usually framed. Drawing from selected SDGs and AU2063 goals and aspirations, the chapter contends that the SDGs and AU2063 offer broad normative but also tangible metrics by which to assess the impacts of ASM in Ghana, and adopting human security as a governance and management indicator promises a more effective conduit for achieving selected SDGs and AU2063 aspirations in Ghana.

Keywords:

Development Security Mining Governance 

References

  1. Appiah E (2016) Galamsey, a ‘simple matter of law enforcement’—Mahama Ayariga. 6 September. https://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2016/september-16th/galamsey-a-simple-matter-of-law-enforcement-mahama-ayariga.php. Accessed 1 Feb 2018
  2. Appiah JO, Ohene JB, Afram A (2013) Effects of mining activities on access to potable water: households’ perception and practices at Konongo and Odumasi communities in Ghana. Civil Environ Res 12:2224–5790Google Scholar
  3. Antwi EK, Owusu-Banahene W, Boakye-Danquah J, Mensah R, Tetteh JD, Nagao M, Takeuchi K (2017) Sustainability assessment of mine-affected communities in Ghana: towards ecosystems and livelihood restoration. Sustain Sci 1–21Google Scholar
  4. Amankwah RK, Anim-Sackey C (2004) Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamond mining industry of Ghana. Res Policy 29(1):131–138Google Scholar
  5. Baldwin DA (1997) The concept of security. Rev Int Stud 23(1):5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basu N, Clarke E, Green A, Calys-Tagoe B, Chan L, Dzodzomenyo M, Fobil J, Long RN, Neitzel RL, Obiri S, Odei E (2015) Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana—Part 1: human health review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12(5):5143–5176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boafo-Arthur K (2002) Neo-liberalism, human security, and pan-Africanist ideals: synergies and contradictions. Afr J Int Aff 5(1–2):1–19Google Scholar
  8. Boakye-Danquah J (2013) “Galamsey” redefined: counting the social and environmental cost of the new rush for Ghana’s gold and the implications for sustainable local development. In: Paper presented at the 36th applied geography conference, 30 Oct–1 Nov 2013, Annapolis, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  9. Boateng DO, Nana F, Codjoe Y, Ofori J (2014) Impact of illegal small-scale mining (galamsey) on cocoa production in Atiwa district of Ghana. Int J Adv Agric Res 2:89–99Google Scholar
  10. Crawford G, Botchwey G (2016) Foreign involvement in small-scale gold mining in Ghana and its impact on resource fairness. In: Pichler M, Staritz C, Küblböck K, Plank C, Raza W, Ruiz Peyré F (eds) Fairness and justice in natural resource politics. Routledge, London, pp 181–199Google Scholar
  11. Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) (2017) Ghana’s data for sustainable development roadmap forum, 5–6 Apr 2017. http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/SDGs/Data%20Roadmap%20Forum-%20Concept%20Note.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2018
  12. Government of Ghana (GoG) (2017) An overview of Ghana’s role in the post-2015 global development agenda by the National Development Planning Commission, Ghana. http://www.ghana.gov.gh/index.php/media-center/press-release/1958-the-sustainable-development-goals-sdgs. Accessed 1 Feb 2018
  13. Hampson FO (2013) Human security. In: Williams PD (ed) Security Studies. Routledge, Abingdon, pp 279–294Google Scholar
  14. Hilson G (2001) A contextual review of the Ghanaian small-scale mining industry. Min Miner Sustain Dev 76:1–29Google Scholar
  15. Hilson G, Hilson A, Maconachie R, McQuilken J, Goumandakoye H (2017) Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in sub-Saharan Africa: re-conceptualizing formalization and ‘illegal’activity. Geoforum 83:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutchful E (2008) From military security to human security. In: Akokpari J, Ndinga-Muvumba A, Murithi T (eds) The African union and its institutions. Jacana Media, Sunnyside, pp 63–84Google Scholar
  17. Ighobor K (2015) Sustainable development goals are in sync with Africa’s priorities. Newly adopted sustainable development goals could transform the continent. Afr Renew 29(3):3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Joshi DK, Hughes BB, Sisk TD (2015) Improving governance for the post-2015 sustainable development goals: scenario forecasting the next 50 years. World Dev 70:286–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kakonge JO (2012) Challenges of achieving millennium development goals in Africa by 2015: some reflections. Glob Policy 3(2):245–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaldor M (2011) Human security in complex operations. Prism: J Complex Oper 2(2):3–14Google Scholar
  21. King G, Murray C (2001) Rethinking human security. Politi Sci Quart 116(4):585–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kyeremateng-Amoah E, Clark EE (2015) Injuries among artisanal and small-scale gold miners in Ghana. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12(9):10886–10896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Newman E (2010) Critical human security studies. Review of International Studies 36(1):77–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Okoh GA (2014) Grievance and conflict in Ghana’s gold mining industry: The case of Obuasi. Futures 62((Part A)):51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snapir B, Simms DM, Waine TW (2017) Mapping the expansion of galamsey gold mines in the cocoa growing area of Ghana using optical remote sensing. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinformation 58:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. The impact of small-scale gold mining on mining communities in Ghana (2018) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283507716_The_impact_of_small-scale_gold_mining_on_mining_communities_in_Ghana. Accessed 1 Feb 2018
  27. United Nations (2015) The millennium goals report 2015. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (1994) Human development report 1994. New York: UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/255/hdr_1994_en_complete_nostats.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2018
  29. Williams PD (2007) Thinking about security in Africa. Int Aff 83(6):1021–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isaac Mensah
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Boakye-Danquah
    • 2
  • Nurudeen Suleiman
    • 3
  • Sena Nutakor
    • 4
  • Muhammad Dan Suleiman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  2. 2.University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.University of GhanaAccraGhana
  4. 4.Geneva Academy for international Humanitarian Law and Human RightsGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations