Volatile Organic Compounds from Endophytic Fungi

  • Sudipta Roy
  • Debdulal BanerjeeEmail author
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Volatile organics are found everywhere in nature, and their distinction lies in their unique physical property of readily diffusing in the atmosphere. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have a low molecular weight and a lower boiling point, which facilitate quick evaporation or sublimation and create a higher vapor density. About 1000 microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) have been documented as being produced by at least 400 different bacterial and fungal species to date; approximately 300 VOCs have been characterized from fungi. Individual fungi have been found to emit a particular suite of volatile organics. Endophytic fungal VOCs induce positive changes in plant growth and vigor. Further, fungal VOCs (FVOCs) are now being widely applied in controlling plant pathogens (mycofumigation), in mycodiesel or fuel production, biosensor production, etc. Fungal VOCs influence plant growth and defense, interspecies interaction between plants, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes, are attractants of natural enemies and bio-control agents, finding suitable applications in pest management. VOCs are found to exist as mixtures of simple hydrocarbons, heterocycles, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols, thioalcohols, thioesters and their derivatives, benzene derivatives, and cyclohexanes. Endophytic fungi have been extensively studied for production of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon-like compounds along with other quality volatile organics. These compounds have high potential to be used both as “green chemicals” and as fuels.


Endophyte Fungi Muscodor albus Volatile organic compounds 



The authors are thankful to the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi and Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi for financial support.


  1. Alpha CJ, Campos M, Jacobs-Wagner C, Strobel SA (2015) Mycofumigation by the volatile organic compound-producing fungus Muscodor albus induces bacterial cell death through DNA damage. Appl Environ Microbiol 813:147–156Google Scholar
  2. Atmosukarto I, Castillo U, Hess WM, Sears J, Strobel G (2005) Isolation and characterization of Muscodor albus I-41.3 s, a volatile antibiotic producing fungus. Plant Sci 169:854–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badri DV, Vivanco JM (2009) Regulation and function of root exudates. Plant Cell Environ 32(6):666–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banerjee D, Strobel GA, Booth E, Geary B, Sears J, Spakowicz D, Busse S (2010) An endophytic Myrothecium inundatum producing volatile organic compounds. Mycosphere 1(3):229–240Google Scholar
  5. Banerjee D, Pandey A, Jana M, Strobel GA (2014) Muscodor albus MOW12 an endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) collected from northeast India produces volatile antimicrobials. Indian J Microbiol 54:27–32. Scholar
  6. Bennett JW, Inamadar AA (2015) Are some fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mycotoxins? Toxins 7:3785–3804.
  7. Bennett JW, Hung R, Lee S, Padhi S (2013) Fungal and bacterial volatile organic compounds; an overview and their role as ecological signaling agents. In: Hock B (ed) The Mycota IX fungal interactions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 373–393Google Scholar
  8. Bitas V, Kim HS, Bennett JW, Kang S (2013) Sniffing on microbes: diverse roles of microbial volatile organic compounds in plant health. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 26(8):835–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonfante P, Genre A (2010) Mechanisms underlying beneficial plant–fungus interactions in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nat Commun 1:48. Scholar
  10. Booth E, Strobel G, Knighton B, Sears J, Geary B, Avci R (2011) A rapid column technique for trapping and collecting of volatile fungal hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives. Biotechnol Lett 33:1963–1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiron N, Michelot D (2005) Odeurs de champignons: chimie et role dans les interactions biotiques d’ une revue. Cryptogam Mycol 26:299–364Google Scholar
  12. Claeson AS, Sandstrom M, Sunesson AL (2007) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from materials collected from buildings affected by microorganisms. J Environ Monit 9:240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. D’Alessandro M, Erb M, Ton J, Brandenburg A, Karlen D, Zopfi J, Turlings TCJ (2014) Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions. Plant Cell Environ 37:813–826. Scholar
  14. Daisy BH, Strobel GA, Castillo U, Ezra D, Sears J, Weaver DK, Runyon JB (2002) Naphthalene, an insect repellent, is produced by Muscodor vitigenus, a novel endophytic fungus. Microbiology 148:3737–3741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis TS, Crippen TL, Hofstetter RW, Tomberlin JK (2013) Microbial volatile emissions as insect semiochemicals. J Chem Ecol 39:840–859. Scholar
  16. Desbrosses GJ, Stougaard J (2011) Root nodulation: a paradigm for how plant-microbe symbiosis influences host developmental pathways. Cell Host Microbe 20(10):348–358. Scholar
  17. Effmert U, Kalderas J, Warnke R, Piechulla B (2012) Volatile mediated interactions between bacteria and fungi in the soil. J Chem Ecol 38:665–703. Scholar
  18. Ezra D, Hess WM, Strobel GA (2004) Unique wild type endophytic isolates of Muscodor albus, a volatile antibiotic producing fungus. Microbiology 150:4023–4031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foissner W (1999) Notes on the soil ciliate biota (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from the Shimba hills in Kenya (Africa): diversity and description of three new genera and ten new species. Biodivers Conserv 8:319–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garbeva P, Hordijk C, Gerards S, de Boer W (2014) Volatiles produced by the mycophagous soil bacterium Collimonas. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 87:639–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Griffin MA, Spakowicz DJ, Gianoulis TA, Strobel SA (2010) Volatile organic compound production by organisms in the genus Ascocoryne and a re-evaluation of myco-diesel production by NRRL 50072. Microbiology 156(12):3814–3829Google Scholar
  22. Hardoim PR, van Overbeek LS, van Elsas JD (2008) Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth. Trends Microbiol 16:463–471. Scholar
  23. Hsu CS, Dechert GJ, Abbott DJ, Genowitz MW, Barbour R (2000) Molecular characterization of diesel fuels using modern analytical techniques. In: Song C, Hsu C, Mochida I (eds) Chemistry of diesel fuels. Taylor & Francis, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Hyde KD, Soytong K (2008) The fungal endophyte dilemma. Fungal Divers 33:163–173Google Scholar
  25. Inderjit, Weston LA, Duke SO (2005) Challenges, achievements and opportunities in allelopathy research. J Plant Interact 1:69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Insam H, Seewald MSA (2010) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils. Biol Fertil Soils 46:199–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jelen HH (2003) Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) for profiling fungal volatile metabolites. Lett Appl Microbiol 36:263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Junker RR, Tholl D (2013) Volatile organic compound mediated interactions at the plant-microbe interface. J Chem Ecol 39(7):810–825. Scholar
  29. Kanchiswamy CN, Mainoy M, Maffie ME (2015) Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity. Front Plant Sci 6:151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaur H, Kaur R, Kaur S, Baldwin IT, Inderjit (2009) Taking ecological function seriously: soil microbial communities can obviate allelopathic effects of released metabolites. PLoS Biol 4:e4700Google Scholar
  31. Korpi A, Jarnberg J, Pasanen AL (2009) Microbial volatile organic compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 39:139–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kramer R, Abraham WR (2012) Volatile sesquiterpenes from fungi: what are they good for? Phytochem Rev 11:15–37. Scholar
  33. Kudalkar P, Strobel G, Hasan SRU, Geary G, Sears J (2012) Muscodor sutura, a novel endophytic fungus with volatile antibiotic activities. Mycoscience 53:319–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Larsen TO, Frisvad JC (1995) Comparison of different methods for collection of volatile chemical markers from fungi. J Microbiol Methods 24:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee SO, Kim HY, Choi GJ, Lee HB, Jang KS, Choi YH, Kim JC (2009) Mycofumigation with Oxyporus latemarginatus EF069 for control of postharvest apple decay and Rhizoctonia root rot on moth orchid. J Appl Microbiol 106:1213–1219. Scholar
  36. Lemfack MC, Nickel J, Dunkel M, Preissner R, Piechulla B (2014) mVOC: a database of microbial volatiles. Nucleic Acids Res 42:D744–D748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Macias FA, Galindo JLG (2007) Evolution and current status of ecological phytochemistry. Phytochemistry 68:2917–2936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Macias-Rubalcava ML, Hernandez-Bautista BE, Oropeza F, Duarte G, Gonzalez MC, Glenn AE, Hanlin RT, Anaya AL (2010) Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba. J Chem Ecol 4:1122–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Maffei A, Lambo ME, Turrigiano GG (2010) Developmental regulation of experience-dependent inhibitory plasticity. J Neurosci 30:3304–3309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maffei ME, Gertsch J, Appendino G (2011) Plant volatiles: production, function and pharmacology. Nat Prod Rep 28(8):1359–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Malhadas C, Malheiro R, Pereira JA, de Pinho PG, Baptista P (2017) Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from olive tree leaves. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 33:46. Scholar
  42. Matysik S, Herbarth O, Mueller A (2009) Determination of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) by passive sampling onto charcoal sorbents. Chemosphere 76:114–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Medina-Romero YM, Roque-Flores G, Macias-Rubalcava ML (2017) Volatile organic compounds from endophytic fungi as innovative postharvest control of Fusarium oxysporum in cherry tomato fruits. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 101:8209–8222. Scholar
  44. Mends MT, Yu E, Riyaz-Ul-Hassan S, Booth E, Geary B, Sears J, Taatjes CA, Hadi MZ (2012) An endophytic Nodulisporium sp. producing volatile organic compounds having bioactivity and fuel potential. J Pet Environ Biotechnol 3:3Google Scholar
  45. Mercer J, Jimenez JI (2004) Control of fungal decay of apples and peaches by the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus. Post Harvest Biol Technol 31:1–8. Scholar
  46. Mercier J, Manker D (2005) Biocontrol of soil-borne disease and plant growth enhancement in green house soilless mix by the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus. Crop Prot 24:355–362. Scholar
  47. Mitchell AM, Strobel GA, Moore E, Robison R, Sears J (2010) Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus. Microbiology 156:270–277. Scholar
  48. Mookherjee A, Bera P, Mitra A, Maiti MK (2018) Characterization and synergistic effect of antifungal volatileorganic compounds emitted by the Geotrichum candidum PF005, an endophytic fungus from the eggplant. Microb Ecol 75:647–661. Scholar
  49. Morath S, Hung R, Bennett JW (2012) Fungal volatile organic compounds: a review with emphasis on their biotechnological potential. Fungal Biol Rev 30:1–11Google Scholar
  50. Ortiz-Castro R, Contreras-Cornejo HA, ias-Rodriguez L, Lopez-Bucio J (2009) The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development. Plant Signal Behav 4:701–712. Scholar
  51. Pagans E, Font X, Sanchez A (2006) Emission of volatile organic compounds from composting of different solid wastes: Abatement by biofiltration. J Hazard Mater 131:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pandey A, Banerjee D (2014) Daldinia bambusicola Ch4/11 an endophytic fungus producing volatile organic compounds having antimicrobial and olio chemical potential. J Adv Microbiol 1:330–337Google Scholar
  53. Park MS, Ahn JY, Choi G-J, Choi YH, Jang KS, Kim JC (2010) Potential of the volatile-producing fungus Nodulisporium sp. CF016 for the control of postharvest diseases of apple. Plant Pathol J 26:253–259. Scholar
  54. Penuelas J, Asensio D, Tholl D, Wenke K, Rosenkranz M, Piechulla B, Schnitzler JP (2014) Biogenic volatile emissions from the soil. Plant Cell Environ 37:1866–1891. Scholar
  55. Piechulla B, Degenhardt J (2014) The emerging importance of microbial volatile organic compounds. Plant Cell Environ 37:811–812. Scholar
  56. Qadri M, Rajput R, Abdin MZ, Vishwakarma RA, Riyaz–Ul–Hassan S (2014) Diversity, molecular phylogeny, and bioactive potential of fungal endophytes associated with the Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana). Microb Ecol 67:877–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Qadri M, Deshidi R, Shah BA, Bindu K, Vishwakarma RA, Riyaz-Ul-Hassan S (2015) An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 31(10):1647–1654. Scholar
  58. Rana KL, Kour D, Yadav AN, Kumar V, Dhaliwal HS (2016) Biotechnological applications of endophytic microbes associated with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing in Indian Himalayan regions. In: Proceedings of 86th Annual Session of NASI & Symposium on “Science, Technology and Entrepreneurship for Human Welfare in The Himalayan Region”, p 80Google Scholar
  59. Rana KL, Kour D, Sheikh I, Yadav N, Yadav AN, Kumar V, Singh BP, Dhaliwal HS, Saxena AK (2018a) Biodiversity of endophytic fungi from diverse niches and their biotechnological applications. In: Singh BP (ed) Advances in endophytic fungal research. Springer, Switzerland. Scholar
  60. Rana KL, Kour D, Yadav AN (2018b) Endophytic microbiomes: biodiversity, ecological significance and biotechnological applications. Res J Biotechnol 14:1–30Google Scholar
  61. Reinhold-Hurek B, Hurek T (2011) Living inside plants: bacterial endophytes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:435–443. Scholar
  62. Riyaz-Ul-Hassan S, Strobel GA, Booth E, Knighton B, Sears J (2012) Modulation of volatile organic compound formation in the mycodiesel producing endophyte Hypoxylon sp. CI-4. Microbiology 158:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Riyaz-Ul-Hassan S, Strobel G, Geary B, Sears J (2013) An endophytic Nodulisporium sp. from Central America producing volatile organic compounds with both biological and fuel potential. J Microbiol Biotechnol 23:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Romoli R, Papaleo MC, De Pascale D, Tutino ML, Michaud L, Lo G, Fani R, Bartolucci G (2014) GC-MS volatolomic approach to study the antimicrobial activity of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. TB41. Metabolomics 10:42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sanchez-Fernández RE, Diaz D, Duarte G, Lappe-Oliveras P, Sánchez S, Macias-Rubalcava ML (2016) Antifungal volatile organic compounds from the endophyte Nodulisporium sp. strain GS4d2II1a: a qualitative change in the intraspecific and interspecific interactions with Pythium aphanidermatum. Microb Ecol 71:347–364. Scholar
  66. Santos RG, Loh W, Bannwart AC, Trevisan OV (2014) An overview of heavy oil properties and its recovery and transportation methods. Braz J Chem Eng 31(3):571–590. Scholar
  67. Schoen HR, Peyton BM, Knighton WB (2016) Rapid total volatile organic carbon quantification from microbial fermentation using a platinum catalyst and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. AMB Express 6:90. Scholar
  68. Schulz S, Dickschat S (2007) Bacterial volatiles: the smell of small organisms. Nat Prod Rep 24(4):814–842. Scholar
  69. Scotter JM, Langford VS, Wilson PF, Mcewan MJ, Chambers ST (2005) Real-time detection of common microbial volatile organic compounds from medically important fungi by Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS). J Microbiol Methods 63:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Senthilmohan ST, Mcewan MJ, Wilson PF, Milligan DB, Freeman CG (2001) Real time analysis of breath volatiles using SIFT-MS in cigarette smoking. Redox Rep 6:185–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shaw JJ, Spakowicz D, Dalal RS, Strobel SA (2015) Biosynthesis and genomic analysis of medium-chain hydrocarbon production by the endophytic fungal isolate Nigrograna mackinnonii E5202H. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99(8).
  72. Singh SK, Strobel GA, Knighton B, Geary B, Sears J, Ezra D (2011) An endophytic Phomopsis sp. possessing bioactivity and fuel potential with its volatile organic compounds. Microb Ecol 61:729–739. Scholar
  73. Steinebrunner F, Twele R, Francke W, Leuchtmann A, Schiestl FP (2008) Role of odour compounds in the attraction of gamete vectors in endophytic Epichloe fungi. New Phytol 178:401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stinson M, Ezra D, Hess WM, Sears J, Strobel G (2003) An endophytic Gliocladium sp. of Eucryphia cordifolia producing selective volatile antimicrobial compounds. Plant Sci 165:913–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stoppacher N, Kluger B, Zeilinger S, Krska R, Schuhmacher R (2010) Identification and profiling of volatile metabolites of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride by HS-SPME-GC-MS. J Microbiol Methods 81:187–193. Scholar
  76. Strobel G, Daisy B (2003) Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67(4):491–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Strobel GA, Dirske E, Sears J, Markworth C (2001) Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor albus, a novel endophytic fungus. Microbiology 147:2943–2950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Strobel GA, Katreena K, Hess WM, Sears J, Ezra D, Vargas PN (2007) Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in host plant. Microbiology 153:2613–2620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Strobel GA, Knighton B, Kluck K, Ren Y, Livinghouse T, Griffen M, Spakowicz D, Sears J (2008) The production of myco-diesel hydrocarbons and their derivatives by the endophytic fungus Gliocladium roseum (NRRL 50072). Microbiology 154:3319–3328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Strobel G, Singh SK, Riyaz-Ul-Hassan S, Mitchel AM, Geary B, Sears J (2011) An endophytic/pathogenic Phoma sp. from creosote bush producing biologically active volatile compounds having fuel potential. FEMS Microbiol Lett 320:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Strobel G, Ericksen A, Sears J, Xie J, Geary B, Blatt B (2017) Urnula sp., an endophyte of Dicksonia antarctica, making a fragrant mixture of biologically active volatile organic compounds. Microb Ecol 74(2):312–321Google Scholar
  82. Suman A, Yadav AN, Verma P (2016) Endophytic microbes in crops: diversity and beneficial impact for sustainable agriculture. In: Singh D, Abhilash P, Prabha R (eds) Microbial inoculants in sustainable agricultural productivity: research perspectives. Springer, New Delhi, pp 117–143. Scholar
  83. Ting ASY, Mah SW, Tee CS (2010) Identification of volatile metabolites from fungal endophytes with biocontrol potential towards Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. cubense Race 4. Am J Agric Biol Sci 5:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tomsheck A, Strobel GA, Booth E, Geary B, Spakowicz D, Knighton B, Floerchinger C, Sears J, Liarzi O, Ezra D (2010) Hypoxylon sp., an endophyte of Persea indica, producing 1,8-cineole and other bioactive volatiles with fuel potential. Microb Ecol 60:903–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. von Rad U, Klein I, Dobrev PI, Kottova J, Zazimalova E, Fekete A, Hartmann A, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Durner J (2008) Response of Arabidopsis thaliana to N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine-lactone, a bacterial quorum sensing molecule produced in the rhizosphere. Planta 229:73–85. Scholar
  86. Wang A, Maffei A (2011) Inhibition dictates the sign of plasticity at excitatory synapses. In sfn (2010) 415.02, San Diego Minisymposium “Beyond the Connectome”Google Scholar
  87. Wani MA, Kaul S, Kumar DM, Lal DK (2010) GC-MS analysis reveals production of 2-phenylethanol from Aspergillus niger endophytic in rose. J Basic Microbiol 50:110–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Weise T, Thuermer A, Brady S, Kai M, Daniel R, Gottschalk G, Piechulla B (2014) VOC emission of various Serratia species and isolates and genome analysis of Serratia plymuthica 4Rx13. FEMS Microbiol Lett 352:45–53. Scholar
  89. Wilkins K, Larsen K (1995) Identification of volatile (micro) biological compounds from household waste and building materials by thermal desorption-capillary gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. J High Resolut Chromatogr 18:373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Worapong J, Strobel GA, Ford EJ, Li JY, Baird G, Hess WM (2001) Muscodor albus anam. nov., an endophyte from Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Mycotaxon 79:67–79Google Scholar
  91. Wu W, Tran W, Taatjes CA, Alonso-Gutierrez J, Lee TS, Gladden JM (2016) Rapid discovery and functional characterization of terpene synthases from four endophytic Xylariaceae. PLoS One 11(2):e0146983. Scholar
  92. Yadav AN (2018) Biodiversity and biotechnological applications of host-specific endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and allied sectors. Acta Sci Microbiol 1:1–5Google Scholar
  93. Yadav AN, Kumar R, Kumar S, Kumar V, Sugitha T, Singh B, Chauhan VS, Dhaliwal HS, Saxena AK (2017) Beneficial microbiomes: biodiversity and potential biotechnological applications for sustainable agriculture and human health. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 5:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yan DH, Song X, Li H, LuoT DG, Strobel G (2018) Antifungal activities of volatile secondary metabolites of four Diaporthe strains isolated from Catharanthus roseus. J Fungi 4:65. Scholar
  95. Yuan JR, Shen WQ, Huang Q (2012) Antifungal activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 volatile compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:5942–5944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yuan J, Sun K, Deng-Wang MY, Dai CC (2016) The mechanism of ethylene signaling induced by endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 mediating sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea. Front Plant Sci 23(7):361. Scholar
  97. Zhang Z, Li G (2010) A review of advances and new developments in the analysis of biological volatile organic compounds. Microchem J 65:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhao CZ, Xia H, Frazier TP, Yao YY, Bi YP, Li AQ, Li MJ, Li CS, Zhang BH, Wang XJ (2010) Deep sequencing identifies novel and conserved micro-RNAs in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). BMC Plant Biol 10:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany and ForestryVidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia

Personalised recommendations