Social Enterprise as Change
The characteristics, pace and the varied drivers of change point to the need for nonprofit organizations to explore and at least consider different nonprofit specific change strategies. One of the leading examples of nonprofit specific change strategy is the adoption of social enterprise to help the organization to adapt to change in the external environment. The chapter examines the concept of social enterprise in relation to change in nonprofit organizations. It explains the dimensions of the explanation of what is social enterprise by highlighting the definitions and examples of social enterprise in the USA, Canada, and the UK. The major influences that contribute to the development of social enterprise emphasize the role of change. Similar to many of the factors and practices in nonprofit organizations, the external environment is a major driver for the adoption of social enterprise. As a concept and practice, social enterprise in nonprofit organizations is the convergence of entrepreneurship and self-sufficiency that are based on individualism and social movement which is the hallmark of collective action. Although it offers a source of tremendous opportunities, social enterprise as change strategy could portend significant challenges that counteract its benefits. Thus, nonprofit organizations must find ways to mitigate the challenges of social enterprise in order to deploy it as an effective change strategy.
- Bruneel, J., Clarysse, B., Weemaes, S., & Staessens, M. (2018). Breaking with the Past: The Need for Innovation in the Governace of Nonprofit Social Enterprises. Academy of Management Perspectives. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2017.0176.
- Borzaga, C., & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
- Child, C. (2016). Tip of the Iceberg: The Nonprofit Underpinnings of For-Profit Social Enterprise. Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(2), 217–237. Google Scholar
- Dees, J. G. (1998). The Meaning of “Social Entrepreneurship”. The Fuqua School of Business, Duke University. https://entrepreneurship.duke.edu/news-item/the-meaning-of-social-entrepreneurship/.
- Dees, J. G. (2001). The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship. The Fuqua School of Business: Duke University.Google Scholar
- Defourny, J., & Nyssens, M. (2008). Social Enterprise in Europe: Recent Trends and Developments (EMES Working Paper, 08).Google Scholar
- Elson, P., & Hall, P. (2013). Plowing the Fields: Provincial Surveys of Social Enterprises in Canada. 4th EMES International Research Conference on Social Enterprise—Liege, 2013.Google Scholar
- Eva’s. (2018). What We Do. https://www.evas.ca/history/.
- Fair for You. (2017). Who We Are. https://www.fairforyou.org.uk/who-we-are/. Retrieved December 2018.
- Kerlin, J. A. (2006). Social Enterprise in the United States and Abroad: Learning From Our Differences. In R. Mosher-Williams (Ed.), Research on Social Entrepreneurship: Understanding and Contributing to an Emerging Field (ARNOVA Occasional Paper Series), 1(3), 105–126.Google Scholar
- Lanctôt, N., Corbière, M., & Durand, M. (2012). Job Tenure and Quality of Work Life of People with Psychiatric Disabilities Working in Social Enterprises. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 37, 39–48.Google Scholar
- Leete, L. (2006). Work in the Nonprofit Sector. In W. W. Powell & R. Steinberg (Eds.), The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook (2nd ed., pp. 159–179). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Massarsky, C. W. (2006). Coming of Age: Social Enterprise Reaches Its Tipping Point. In R. Mosher-Williams (Ed.), Research on Social Entrepreneurship: Understanding and Contributing to an Emerging Field (ARNOVA Occasional Paper Series), 1(3), 67–88.Google Scholar
- Mendell, M., & Neamtan, N. (2010). The Social Economy in Quebec: Towards a New Political Economy. In L. Mook, J. Quarter, & S. Ryan (Eds.), Researching the Social Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Quarter, J., Mook, L., & Armstrong, A. (2009). Understanding Canada’s Social Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Social Enterprise Alliance. (2018). Social Enterprise. https://socialenterprise.us/about/social-enterprise/. Retrieved December 2018.
- Social Enterprise Council of Canada. (2014). http://secouncil.ca/.
- Social Enterprise, UK. (2016a). What Is It All About? https://www.socialenterprise.org.uk/What-is-it-all-about. Retrieved December 2018.
- Social Enterprise, UK. (2016b). Fair for You. https://www.socialenterprise.org.uk/fair-for-you. Retrieved December 2018.
- Villeneuve-Smith, F., & Temple, N. (2015). State of Social Enterprise Report. State of Social Enterprise, UK.Google Scholar
- Weisbrod, B. (1998). To Profit or Not to Profit: The Commercial Transformation of the Nonprofit Sector. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
- Weisbrod, B. (2004). The Pitfalls of Profits. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 2, 40–47.Google Scholar