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Virus Maturation

  • Carmen San MartínEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1215)

Abstract

A virus particle consists of a genome contained within a protein shell. This shell (the capsid) plays multiple roles throughout the infectious cycle, from genome protection to host recognition to successful genome delivery. When capsids first assemble in the cell, most often an initial product is obtained that has not achieved its fully infectious form. To do so, it must undergo a final process called maturation. Virus maturation entails conformational and stability changes. These changes are often driven by proteolytic cleavages, and their main purpose is to ensure successful delivery of the virus genome to a new host cell. Recent advances in molecular, structural, and physical virology techniques are providing a wealth of detailed information and new points of view to understand the principles of virus maturation. Evidence showing that viral capsids are built with a limited set of structural solutions has prompted a new virus classification in structural lineages deriving from a few initial ancestors. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on maturation for the main virus structural lineages, as well as for other relevant viruses not assigned to any particular lineage yet.

Keywords

Virus structure Virus assembly Capsid Scaffold Maturation Stability Uncoating Virus proteases 

Abbreviations

AdV

Adenovirus

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

AVP

Adenovirus protease

BTV

Bluetongue virus

cryo-EM

Cryo-electron microscopy

EMD

Electron microscopy data bank

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FHV

Flock House virus

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

IBDV

Infectious bursal disease virus

ICTV

International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

MCP

Major coat protein

MS

Mass spectrometry

NCLDV

Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses

PC

Bacteriophage Φ6 polymerase complex (PC)

PDB

Protein data bank

STED

Stimulated emission depletion

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work in the San Martín lab is funded by grants BFU2013-41249-P and BIO2015-68990-REDT (the Spanish Adenovirus Network, AdenoNet), from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, as well as BFU2016-74868-P, co-funded by the Spanish State Research Agency and the European Regional Development Fund.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Macromolecular StructureCentro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC)MadridSpain

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