Structure and Function of Negri Bodies

  • Jovan Nikolic
  • Cécile Lagaudrière-Gesbert
  • Nathalie Scrima
  • Danielle BlondelEmail author
  • Yves GaudinEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1215)


Replication and assembly of many viruses occur in viral factories which are specialized intracellular compartments formed during viral infection. For rabies virus, those viral factories are called Negri bodies (NBs). NBs are cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in which viral RNAs (mRNAs as well as genomic and antigenomic RNAs) are synthesized. NBs are spherical, they can fuse together, and can reversibly deform when encountering a physical barrier. All these characteristics are similar to those of eukaryotic membrane-less liquid organelles which contribute to the compartmentalization of the cell interior. Indeed, the liquid nature of NBs has been confirmed by FRAP experiments. The co-expression of rabies virus nucleoprotein N and phosphoprotein P is sufficient to induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions recapitulating NBs properties. Remarkably, P and N have features similar to those of cellular proteins involved in liquid organelles formation: N is an RNA-binding protein and P contains intrinsically disordered domains. An overview of the literature indicates that formation of liquid viral factories by phase separation is probably common among Mononegavirales. This allows specific recruitment and concentration of viral proteins. Finally, as virus-associated molecular patterns recognized by cellular sensors of RNA virus replication are probably essentially present in the viral factory, there should be a subtle interplay (which remains to be characterized) between those liquid structures and the cellular proteins which trigger the innate immune response.


Rabies virus Viral factory Negri bodies Liquid organelles Phase separation 



Amino acid


Baby Hamster Kidney 21 cells


Focal adhesion kinase


Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching


Intrinsically disordered domain


Leader RNA


Negri body


Promyelocytic leukemia protein


Rabies virus


RNA-dependent RNA polymerase




Vesicular stomatitis virus



This work was supported by the CNRS and by a grant from the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM DEQ20120323711) to Y.G.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-SaclayGif-sur-Yvette cedexFrance

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