Assessment and Therapies for Sleep and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders Associated with Atopic Disease in Children: A Dental Perspective

  • Kevin L. Boyd


Many growing children afflicted with atopic diseases have comorbid structural maldevelopments of the craniofacial-respiratory complex (CFRC). Although the epidemiology is not well characterized, several characteristic patterns of skeletal malocclusion (SM) in atopic patients have been noted: constricted width of the maxilla, with or without unilateral or bilateral posterior crossbites, excessive vertical jaw growth (long face), anterior open bites, and decreased length (shortness) of mandibles and maxillas. These particular SM traits represent dysmorphology in all three planes of the CFRC space and all can be comorbid with habitual mouth breathing/nasal disuse. As many SM phenotypes are often first identifiable in early childhood (i.e., by or before age six), we believe that in the presence of respiratory dysfunction, treatment for HSM should be discussed at much earlier ages than is currently considered common practice.


Sleep-related breathing disorders Atopic disease and sleep-related breathing disorders Dental perspective on sleep-related breathing disorders Craniofacial-respiratory complex Excessive vertical jaw growth Malocclusion in atopic patients Structural maldevelopments of the craniofacial-respiratory complex 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin L. Boyd
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dentistry for Children and FamiliesChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Ann & Robert H. LurieChildren’s Hospital of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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