Cellulose as Potential Feedstock for Cellulase Enzyme Production: Versatility and Properties of Various Cellulosic Biomass – Part II
Cellulose is one of the most abundant natural resources on earth for production of biobased products and biofuels. It is also considered to be one of the cheapest renewable resources from which bioenergy can be retrieved for sustainable development of human being. Plant biomass comprises maximum proportion of cellulose, and so it is a potential source for the production of biofuels in an inexpensive way. Since cellulose is a polymer of glucose and also present in the form of hemicellulose and lignin which is insoluble in water, its biodegradation requires enzymatic reaction which is carried out by enzyme cellulases. There are many organisms on earth which live on lignocellulosic biomass by catabolizing the glycosidic linkages. And it is not limited up to some animal species like termites and crayfish. Assessment through the microbial taxonomy leads to the discovery of many genera in the domain of Bacteria and Eucarya. Fungus bears the cellulolytic behavior from the primitive Chytridiomycetes to the advanced Basidiomycetes. Aerobic bacteria metabolize cellulose by hydrolyzing β-(1,4)-linked glycosidic bond, whereas anaerobic bacteria cannot penetrate cellulosic biomass effectively and thus form complex cellulase system called cellulosome.
KeywordsCellulose Industrial enzyme Cellulase enzyme Lignocellulosics biomass biofuels
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