Role of Solid-State Fermentation to Improve Cost Economy of Cellulase Production

  • Sheelendra M. Bhatt
  • Shilpa Bhat
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Cellulase is one of the key mechanical enzymes whose interest is expanding quickly because of its popularity in biofuel creation (ethanol production). The major issue lies in high production of enzyme in economical mode. In current chapter, the author has discussed in detail various advantages and disadvantages of SSF versus submerged production. Also various strategies, raw material, media conditions, and reactors optimization have also been discussed.


Trichoderma SSF SmF Lignocellulose Cellulases 



The author expresses their deep thanks to Professor Pradeep Mishra and Neha Srivastava for providing this opportunity. Also the author declares no conflict of interest lies in the production of article and no fund is involved from anywhere during the writing of article. Tables and figures adapted in articles are properly cited.


  1. Ahamed A, Vermette P (2008) Culture-based strategies to enhance cellulase enzyme production from Trichoderma Reesei RUT-C30 in bioreactor culture conditions. Biochem Eng J 40(3):399–407. Scholar
  2. Anderson WF, Peterson J, Akin DE, Herbert Morrison W (2005) Enzyme pretreatment of grass lignocellulose for potential high-value co-products and an improved fermentable substrate. In: Twenty-sixth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Springer, pp 303–310Google Scholar
  3. Angenent LT, Wrenn BA (2008) Optimising mixed-culture bioprocessing to convert wastes into bioenergy. In: Bioenergy, pp 179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bansal V, Poddar P, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2006) Room-temperature biosynthesis of ferroelectric barium titanate nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 128:11958–11963. Scholar
  5. Bentil JA, Thygesen A, Mensah M, Lange L, Meyer AS (2018) Cellulase production by white-rot basidiomycetous fungi: solid-state versus submerged cultivation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018. Scholar
  6. Binder JB, Raines RT (2010) Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4516–4521. Scholar
  7. Brenner K, You L, Arnold FH (2008) Engineering microbial consortia: a new frontier in synthetic biology. Trends Biotechnol 26(9):483–489. Scholar
  8. Brown NA, dos Reis TF, Goinski AB, Savoldi M, Menino J, Almeida MT, Rodrigues F, Goldman GH (2014) The Aspergillus nidulans signalling mucin MsbA regulates starvation responses, adhesion and affects cellulase secretion in response to environmental cues. Mol Microbiol 94(5):1103–1120. Scholar
  9. Byrt CS, Cahyanegara R, Grof CPL (2012) Plant carbohydrate binding module enhances activity of hybrid microbial cellulase enzyme. Front Plant Sci 3:254. Scholar
  10. Castilho LR, Polato CMS, Baruque EA, Sant’Anna GL Jr, Freire DMG (2000) Economic analysis of lipase production by penicillium restrictum in solid-state and submerged fermentations. Biochem Eng J 4(3):239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerda A, Mejías L, Gea T, Sánchez A (2017) Cellulase and xylanase production at pilot scale by solid-state fermentation from coffee husk using specialized consortia: the consistency of the process and the microbial communities involved. Bioresour Technol 243:1059–1068. Scholar
  12. Chahal PS, Chahal DS, Lê GBB (1996) Production of cellulase in solid-state fermentation with Trichoderma Reesei MCG 80 on wheat straw. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 57–58:433–442. Scholar
  13. Chang KL, Chen XM, Wang XQ, Han YJ, Potprommanee L, Liu J y, Liao YL, Ning X a, Sun S y, Huang Q (2017) Impact of surfactant type for ionic liquid pretreatment on enhancing delignification of rice straw. Bioresour Technol 227:388–392. Scholar
  14. Della VP, Kühn I, Hotza D (2002) Rice husk ash as an alternate source for active silica production. Mater Lett 57:818–821. Scholar
  15. Deshavath NN, Sahoo SK, Panda MM, Mahanta S, Goutham DSN, Goud VV, Dasu VV, Jetty A (2018) The cost-effective stirred tank reactor for cellulase production from alkaline-pretreated agriculture waste biomass. In: Utilization and management of bioresources. Springer, Singapore, pp 25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deshpande P, Nair S, Khedkar S (2009) Water hyacinth as carbon source for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma Reesei. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 158(3):552–560. Scholar
  17. Eiteman MA, Lee SA, Altman E (2008) A co-fermentation strategy to consume sugar mixtures effectively. J Biol Eng 2:3. Scholar
  18. Ellilï S, Fonseca L, Uchima C, Cota J, Goldman GH, Saloheimo M, Sacon V, Siika-Aho M (2017) Development of a low-cost cellulase production process using Trichoderma Reesei for Brazilian biorefineries. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:30. Scholar
  19. Ellouz Chaabouni S, Belguith H, Hassairi I, M’Rad K, Ellouz R (1995) Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium Occitanis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 43(2):267–269. Scholar
  20. Gamarra NN, Villena GK, Gutiérrez-Correa M (2010) Cellulase production by Aspergillus Niger in biofilm, solid-state, and submerged fermentations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87(2):545–551. Scholar
  21. Gautam, S. P., P. S. Bundela, A. K. Pandey, M. K. Awasthi, S. Sarsaiya, and others. 2010. “Optimization of the medium for the production of cellulase by the Trichoderma Viride using submerged fermentation.” Int J Environ Sci 1 (4): 656–665Google Scholar
  22. Gautam SP, Bundela PS, Pandey AK, Khan J, Awasthi MK, Sarsaiya S (2011) Optimization for the production of cellulase enzyme from municipal solid waste residue by two novel cellulolytic fungi. Biotechnol Res Int 2011(810425). Scholar
  23. Gomes A d C, Moysés DN, Santa Anna LMM, de Castro AM (2018) Fed-batch strategies for Saccharification of pilot-scale mild-acid and alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse: effects of solid loading and surfactant addition. Ind Crop Prod 119:283–289. Scholar
  24. Gunny AAN, Arbain D, Jamal P, Gumba RE (2015) Improvement of halophilic cellulase production from locally isolated fungal strain. Saudi J Biol Sci 22(4):476–483. Scholar
  25. Global Industrial Enzymes Market Report (2013) Edition, 2013, Available at URL:
  26. Han X, Song W, Liu G, Li Z, Yang P, Qu Y (2017) Improving cellulase productivity of Penicillium Oxalicum RE-10 by repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy. Bioresour Technol 227:155–163. Scholar
  27. Harendra SK, Kumar BP, Laxmi D (2013) Optimization and production of cellulase from agricultural waste. Res J Agri For Sci 1(7):2320–6063Google Scholar
  28. Hendy NA, Wilke CR, Blanch HW (1984) Enhanced cellulase production in fed-batch culture of Trichoderma Reesei C30. Enzyme Microb Technol 6(2):73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Himmel ME, Ding S-Y, Johnson DK, Adney WS, Nimlos MR, Brady JW, Foust TD (2007) Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science 315(5813):804–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jampala P, Tadikamalla S, Preethi M, Ramanujam S, Uppuluri KB (2017) Concurrent production of cellulase and xylanase from Trichoderma Reesei NCIM 1186: enhancement of production by desirability-based multi-objective method. 3 Biotech 7(1).
  31. Julia BM, Belén AM, Georgina B, Beatriz F (2016) Potential use of soybean hulls and waste paper as supports in SSF for cellulase production by Aspergillus Niger. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 6:1–8. Scholar
  32. Juliet AB, Cyrus ET, Oladiti OO (2013) Parameters optimization of cellulase Zymosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus NSPR017 grown on pretreated orange peels. Nat Sci 11(10):80–87Google Scholar
  33. Juturu V, Wu JC (2014) Microbial cellulases: engineering, production and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 33:188–203. Scholar
  34. Kannahi M, Elangeswari S (2015) Enhanced production of cellulase on different fruit peel under submerged fermentation. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 32(2):161–165Google Scholar
  35. Kleerebezem R, van Loosdrecht MCM (2007) Mixed culture biotechnology for bioenergy production. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18(3):207–212. Scholar
  36. Klein M, Griess O, Pulidindi IN, Perkas N, Gedanken A (2016) Bioethanol production from Ficus Religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation. J Environ Manage 177:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Klein-Marcuschamer D, Oleskowicz-Popiel P, Simmons BA, Blanch HW (2012) The challenge of enzyme cost in the production of Lignocellulosic biofuels. Biotechnol Bioeng 109(4):1083–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kumar S, Singh SP, Mishra IM, Adhikari DK (2009) Recent advances in production of bioethanol from Lignocellulosic biomass. Chem Eng Technol 32(4):517–526. Scholar
  39. Kumar L, Arantes V, Chandra R, Saddler J (2012) The lignin present in steam pretreated softwood binds enzymes and limits cellulose accessibility. Bioresour Technol 103:201–208. Scholar
  40. Lee S-M, Koo Y-M (2001) Pilot-scale production of cellulase using Trichoderma Reesei rut C-30 fed-batch mode. J Microbiol Biotechnol 11(2):229–233Google Scholar
  41. Li XH, Yang HJ, Roy B, Park EY, Jiang LJ, Wang D, Miao YG (2010) Enhanced cellulase production of the Trichoderma Viride mutated by microwave and ultraviolet. Microbiol Res 165:190–198. Scholar
  42. Liming X, Xueliang S (2004) High-yield cellulase production by Trichoderma Reesei ZU-02 on corn cob residue. Bioresour Technol 91(3):259–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. López-Contreras AM, Gabor K, Martens AA, Renckens BAM, Claassen PAM, Van Der Oost J, De Vos WM (2004) Substrate-induced production and secretion of cellulases by clostridium Acetobutylicum. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(9):5238–5243. Scholar
  44. Lynd LR, Laser MS, Bransby D, Dale BE, Davison B, Hamilton R, Himmel M, Keller M, McMillan JD, Sheehan J (2008) How biotech can transform biofuels. Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ma H, Liu WW, Chen X, Wu YJ, Yu ZL (2009) Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of rice straw by microwave pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 100:1279–1284. Scholar
  46. Magnusson L, Islam R, Sparling R, Levin D, Cicek N (2008) Direct hydrogen production from cellulosic waste materials with a single-step dark fermentation process. Int J Hydrogen Energy 33:5398–5403. Scholar
  47. Marín M, Artola A, Sánchez A (2018) Optimization of down-stream for cellulases produced under solid-state fermentation of coffee husk. Waste Biomass Valorization:1–12Google Scholar
  48. Mohapatra S, Padhy S, Das Mohapatra PK, Thatoi HN (2018) Enhanced reducing sugar production by saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, Pennisetum species through cellulase from a newly isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Bioresour Technol 253:262–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mrudula S, Murugammal R (2011) Production of cellulase by Aspergillus Niger under submerged and solid state fermentation using coir waste as a substrate. Braz J Microbiol 42(3):1119–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Muthuvelayudham R, Viruthagiri T (2007) Optimization and modeling of cellulase protein from Trichoderma reesei rut C30 using mixed substrate. Afr J Biotechnol 6(1):41–46Google Scholar
  51. Muthuvelayudham R, Viruthagiri T (2010) Application of central composite design based response surface methodology in parameter optimization and on cellulase production using agricultural waste. Int J Chem Biol Eng: 97–104Google Scholar
  52. Neagu DA, Destain J, Thonart P, Socaciu C (2012) Trichoderma Reesei cellulase produced by submerged versus solid state fermentations. Bull UASVM Agri 69(2):320–326Google Scholar
  53. Nguyen TAD, Kim KR, Han SJ, Cho HY, Kim JW, Park SM, Park JC, Sim SJ (2010) Pretreatment of rice straw with ammonia and ionic liquid for lignocellulose conversion to fermentable sugars. Bioresour Technol 101:7432–7438. Scholar
  54. Passos DDF, Pereira N, de Castro AM (2018) A comparative review of recent advances in cellulases production by Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma strains and their use for lignocellulose deconstruction. Curr Opin Green Sustain Chem 14:60–66. Scholar
  55. Pirota RDPB, Miotto LS, Delabona PS, Farinas CS (2013) Improving the extraction conditions of endoglucanase produced by Aspergillus Niger under solid-state fermentation. Braz J Chem Eng 30(1):117–123. Scholar
  56. Prasanna HN, Ramanjaneyulu G, Rajasekhar Reddy B (2016) Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium Sp. 3 Biotech 6(2).
  57. Radhika R, Roseline Jebapriya G, Joel Gnanadoss J (2013) Production of cellulase and laccase using Pleurotus Sp. under submerged and solid-state fermentation. Int J Curr Sci 6:7–13Google Scholar
  58. Reyes-Ortiz V, Heins RA, Cheng G, Kim EY, Vernon BC, Elandt RB, Adams PD et al (2013) Addition of a carbohydrate-binding module enhances cellulase penetration into cellulose substrates. Biotechnol Biofuels 6:93. Scholar
  59. Romaní A, Garrote G, López F, Parajó JC (2011) Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification. Bioresour Technol 102:5896–5904. Scholar
  60. Saini R, Saini JK, Adsul M, Patel AK, Mathur A, Tuli D, Singhania RR (2015) Enhanced cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum for bio-ethanol application. Bioresour Technol 188:240–246. Scholar
  61. Sánchez C (2009) Lignocellulosic residues: biodegradation and bioconversion by fungi. Biotechnol Adv 27(2):185–194. Scholar
  62. Saravanan P, Muthuvelayudham R, Viruthagiri T (2013) Enhanced production of cellulase from pineapple waste by response surface methodology. J Eng (United States) 2013.
  63. Seidl V, Gamauf C, Druzhinina IS, Seiboth B, Hartl L, Kubicek CP (2008) The Hypocrea Jecorina (Trichoderma Reesei) Hypercellulolytic mutant RUT C30 lacks a 85 Kb (29 gene-encoding) region of the wild-type genome. BMC Genomics 9(1):327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sethi S, Datta A, Lal Gupta B, Gupta S, Sethi S, Datta A, Lal Gupta B, Gupta S (2013) Optimization of cellulase production from bacteria isolated from soil. Int Sch Res Not 2013(2013):e985685. Scholar
  65. Shajahan S, Moorthy IG, Sivakumar N, Selvakumar G (2017) Statistical modeling and optimization of cellulase production by bacillus Licheniformis NCIM 5556 isolated from the hot spring, Maharashtra, India. J King Saud Univ Sci 29(3):302–310. Scholar
  66. Shao X, Lynd L, Wyman C, Bakker A (2009) Kinetic modeling of cellulosic biomass to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: part I. Accommodation of intermittent feeding and analysis of staged reactors. Biotechnol Bioeng 102:59–65. Scholar
  67. Shi J, Chinn MS, Sharma-Shivappa RR (2008) Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by solid state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Bioresour Technol 99(14):6556–6564. Scholar
  68. Singh N, Devi A, Jaryal R, Rani K (2018) An ecofriendly and efficient strategy for cost effective production of Lignocellulotic enzymes. Waste Biomass Valorization 9(6):891–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Singhania RR, Sukumaran RK, Pandey A (2007) Improved Cellulase production by Trichoderma Reesei RUT C30 under SSF through process optimization. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 142(1):60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Singhania RR, Sukumaran RK, Patel AK, Larroche C, Pandey A (2010) Advancement and comparative profiles in the production technologies using solid-state and submerged fermentation for microbial cellulases. Enzyme Microb Technol 46:541–549. Scholar
  71. Sreena CP, Sebastian D (2018) Augmented cellulase production by bacillus Subtilis strain MU S1 using different statistical experimental designs. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 16(1):9–16. Scholar
  72. Srivastava N, Srivastava M, Mishra PK, Gupta VK, Molina G, Rodriguez-Couto S, Manikanta A, Ramteke PW (2018) Applications of fungal cellulases in biofuel production: advances and limitations. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Scholar
  73. Su LH, Zhao S, Jiang SX, Liao XZ, Duan CJ, Feng JX (2017) Cellulase with high β-glucosidase activity by Penicillium oxalicum under solid state fermentation and its use in hydrolysis of cassava residue. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 33(2):37. Scholar
  74. Sukumaran RK, Singhania RR, Pandey A (2005) Microbial cellulases-production, applications and challenges. J Sci Ind Res 64(11):832–844Google Scholar
  75. Szambelan K, Nowak J, Czarnecki Z (2004) Use of Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed with Kluyveromyces fragilis for improved ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Biotechnol Lett 26:845–848. Scholar
  76. Tabssum F, Irfan M, Shakir HA, Qazi JI (2018) RSM based optimization of nutritional conditions for cellulase mediated Saccharification by bacillus cereus. J Biol Eng 12(1).
  77. Thakkar A, Saraf M (2014) Application of statistically based experimental designs to optimize cellulase production and identification of gene. Nat Products Bioprospecting 4(6):341–351. Scholar
  78. Xia Y, Yang L, Xia L (2018) High-level production of a fungal β-glucosidase with application potentials in the cost-effective production of Trichoderma reesei cellulase. Process Biochem 70:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yin X, You Q, Jiang Z (2011) Optimization of enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Tricholoma Matsutake by response surface methodology. Carbohydr Polym 86(3):1358–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yu H, Zhang X, Song L, Ke J, Xu C, Du W, Zhang J (2010) Evaluation of white-rot fungi-assisted alkaline/oxidative pretreatment of corn straw undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase. J Biosci Bioeng 110:660–664. Scholar
  81. Zeng J, Singh D, Chen S (2011) Biological pretreatment of wheat straw by Phanerochaete chrysosporium supplemented with inorganic salts. Bioresour Technol 102:3206–3214. Scholar
  82. Zhang F, Zhao X, Bai F (2018) Improvement of cellulase production in Trichoderma Reesei rut-C30 by overexpression of a novel regulatory gene Trvib-1. Bioresour Technol 247:676–683. Scholar
  83. Zhu SD, Wu YX, Zhao YF, Tu SY, Xue YP (2006) Fed-batch simultaneous Saccharification and fermentation of microwave/acid/alkali/H2O2 pretreated Rice straw for production of ethanol. Chem Eng Commun 193(5):639–648. Scholar
  84. Zuroff TR, Curtis WR (2012) Developing symbiotic consortia for Lignocellulosic biofuel production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1423–1435. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheelendra M. Bhatt
    • 1
  • Shilpa Bhat
    • 2
  1. 1.Sant Baba Bhag Singh UniversityJalandharIndia
  2. 2.CGC LandranMohaliIndia

Personalised recommendations