Radical Nationalism, Militarism and Masculinity After the Opening of the Border

  • Stratis Andreas Efthymiou


This chapter explores the emergence of radical far-right ideological agendas in contemporary post-conflict settings. The author examines four political parties and youths responding to the weakening of nationalism, militarism and masculinity in Cyprus. These radical far-right parties favour preserving and evoke the need to revive the post-1974 national struggle in the form it was before the opening of the border and accession to the EU. Moreover, their agendas are fused with radical far-right ideological elements.


  1. AuditLine. (2019). Special Defence Contribution (SDC) of the republic (Defence tax). Available at Accessed 20 May 2019.
  2. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Dimitrova. K. (2009). The economic crisis closes in on Bulgarian Roma. Roma Rights Quarterly, 1, 39–43.Google Scholar
  4. EDIK. (2015). Οργανωτικό [online]. Available at Accessed 4 January 2014.
  5. Efthymiou, S. (2016). The development of the ideology of defence: Militarism in post-war Cyprus. Defence Studies, 16(4), 408–426. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ELAM. (2011a, March). A Greek: Δελτίο Τύπου - Βουλευτικές εκλογές 2011 (“Press Release—Parliamentary elections 2011”). ELAM’s blog.Google Scholar
  7. ———. (2011b). Elam condemns police brutality [online]. ELAM. Available at, 2 April 2011. Accessed 22 April 2013.
  8. ———. (2011c). Εθνικιστικη Κατασκηνωση [Nationalist camp] [online]. Available at Accessed 22 April 2013.
  9. ———. (2012). ανθελληνικο κρατος [Anti-Greek state] [online]. Available at Accessed 22 April 2013.
  10. ———. (2015). ΟΙ ΘΕΣΕΙΣ ΜΑΣ: Μετανάστευση-Λαθρομετανάστευση [Our positions: Migration—illegal migration] [online]. Available at Accessed 10 December 14.
  11. ELAM—Sigma TV. (2014). Καυγάς Γεάδη (ΕΛΑΜ) - Τσουρούλλη - Χαραλαμπίδη [online] Sigma TV. Available at Accessed 30 December 14.
  12. Foucault, M. (1983). The subject and power. In H. Dreyfus & P. Rabinow (Eds.), Michel Foucault: Beyond structuralism and hermeneutics (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Georgakopoulos, T. (1999). Cyprus a full member of the European Union: An overview. Economia, 3, 77–94.Google Scholar
  14. Hasapopoulos, N. (2013). Χρυσή Αυγή: Η ιστορία, τα πρόσωπα και η αλήθεια. Athens: Α. Α. Λιβάνη.Google Scholar
  15. Hayton, R. (2010). Towards the mainstream? UKIP and the 2009 elections to the European parliament. Politics, 30(1), 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hitchens, C. (1997). Hostage to history, Cyprus from the ottomans to kissinger (3rd ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  17. Hobsbawm, E., & Ranger, T. (1983). The invention of tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Horschelmann, K. (2013). Deviant masculinities: Representations of neo-fascist youth in Eastern Germany. In K. Hörschelmann & B. van Hoven (Eds.), Spaces of masculinities (pp. 128–141). London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kammas, M. (1992). Smallness, economic development and Cyprus. The Cyprus Review., 4, 65–76.Google Scholar
  20. Kollias, C., Naxakisb, C., & Zarangasb, L. (2004). Defence spending and growth in Cyprus: A causal analysis. Defence and Peace Economics, 15(3), 299–307.Google Scholar
  21. Kyprianoú, N. (2017, June 12). Μέχρι 60 στρατιώτες στην Πολιτική Άμυνα. Philenews. Retrieved from Accessed 12 September 2018.
  22. Lynch, P., & Whitaker, R. (2012). Rivalry on the right: The conservatives, the UK Independence Party (UKIP) and the EU issue. British Politics, 8(3), 285.Google Scholar
  23. Margariths, G. (2005). Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Εμφυλίου Πολέμου 1946–1949. Βιβλιόραμα: Αθήνα.Google Scholar
  24. Marketou, S. (2014). Η προϊστορία της σύγχρονης ελληνικής άκρας δεξιάς: Τετράδια Ανυπότακτης Θεωρίας. Athens: Greece.Google Scholar
  25. Mavratsas, C. V. (1996). The ideological contest between Greek- Cypriot nationalism and Cypriotism, 1974–1995: Politics, social memory and identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20(4), 717–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O’Connor, N. (2013). Cyprus’ Golden Dawn wing confident of success Far-right ELAM party calls for an end to ‘illegal migration’ and hopes to gain support amid Cyprus’ weak economy [online] Aljazeera. Available at Accessed 11 December 14.
  27. Passmore, K. (2003). Women, gender and fascism in Europe. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Reuters. (2015). Greek far-right leader savors electoral success [online]. Available at Accessed 16 June 2015.
  29. United Nations. (1996). United Nations report: The demostrations of 11 August 1996. Available at Accessed 20 May 2019.
  30. UN military expenditure data. (2018). UNARM - Cyprus. Available at Accessed 20 May 2019.
  31. World Bank Military Expenditures. (2017). Cyprus military expenditure (% of GDP). Available at Accessed 20 May 2019.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stratis Andreas Efthymiou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Applied SciencesBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations