Advertisement

Local Peace Committees and Election Violence in Burundi, 2015

  • Mulanda JumaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Burundi has long experienced violence before, during and after elections, much of which is ethnically based. The 2015 elections, however, had low levels of violence and seems to have been driven largely by factors other than ethnicity. Factors which may explain this difference include a shift towards violence based on perceived political allegiance, non-collaboration by communities with political leaders, the successful reintegration of ex-combatants and the role of community peace committees. In this chapter, particular attention is paid to the last of these factors.

Keywords

Burundi Election violence Ethnicity Local peace committees 

References

  1. Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J. 2012. Why nations fail: the origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. New York: Crown Business.Google Scholar
  2. Adan, M. and Pkalya, R. 2006. The concept of peace committee: a snapshot analysis of the concept of peace committee in relation to peacebuilding initiatives in Kenya. Available: http://practicalaction.org/energy/eastafrica/docs/region_east_africa/peace_committtee_analysis.pdf (Accessed 10 January 2016).
  3. Alli, W. O. 2005. The Impact of globalization on conflicts in Africa, In: Best, S. G. ed. Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa: a reader. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 329–349.Google Scholar
  4. Boshoff, H. and Vrey, W. 2006. Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration in Burundi: a technical analysis. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  5. Boshoff, H. and Vrey, W. 2010. The United Nations operations in Burundi. In: Boshoff, H., Very, W. and Rautenbach, G. eds. The Burundi Peace Process: From Civil War to Conditional Peace, Monograph 171. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 75–116.Google Scholar
  6. Hayes, N. 2000. Doing Psychological Research: Gathering and Analyzing Data. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Hoffman, E. 2014. Methods for evaluating conflict prevention. Available: http://www.ciian.org/PDF%20Docs/Methods%20for%20Evaluating%20Conflict%20Prevention.pdf (Accessed 11 April 2015).
  8. Juma, M. 2012. Views from the field: operationalising local ownership of community-based reintegration of ex-combatants in Kivu, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Doctoral Thesis, Scuola Supeiore Sant’Anna, Italy.Google Scholar
  9. Manirakiza, P. 2010. The 2015 Constitution of Burundi. Available: http://www.icla.up.ac.za/images/country_reports/burundi_country_report.pdf (Accessed 10 July 2016).
  10. Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme (MDRP). 2007. Beneficiary assessment of the social and economic status of the child soldier special project beneficiaries in Burundi. Bujumbura: Multi-Country Demobilisation and Reintegration Program.Google Scholar
  11. MDRP. 2008. MDRP Progress: Demobilization and Reintegration. Available: http://www.mdrp.org (Accessed 01 September 2010).
  12. Mission for Peace and Reconciliation Under the Cross (MIPAREC). 2012. Comite de Paix de Nyabihanda. Gitega: MIPAREC.Google Scholar
  13. MIPAREC. 2012. Comite de Paix de Butezi. Gitega: MIPAREC.Google Scholar
  14. MIPAREC. 2013. Comite de paix de Kibimba: 1er comite de paix du Burundi crée en 1994. Gitega: MIPAREC.Google Scholar
  15. MIPAREC. 2015. Reports of Peace Committees. Paper presented at Great Lakes Peacebuilding Institute. Gitega: MIPAREC.Google Scholar
  16. Nakuwundi, P. 2007. Healing in Burundi. In: Miller, D. E., Holland, S., Johnson, D. and Fendall, L. eds. Seeking peace in Africa: stories from African peacemakers. Geneva: Cascadia, 124–127.Google Scholar
  17. Radio France Internationale. 2015. Burundi: la Cour constitutionnelle valide la candidature de Nkurunziza. Available: https://bujanews.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/la-cour-constitutionnelle-valide-la-candidature-de-nkurunziza/ (Accessed 7 June 2019).
  18. Reyntjens, F. 2009. The great African war: Congo and regional geopolitics, 1996–2006. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Sen, A. 2000. Why human security? Available: www.humansecurity-chs.org (Accessed 17 September 2010).
  20. Simutanyi, N. 2006. The contested role of former presidents in Zambia. In: Southall, R. and Melber, H. eds. Legacies of Power: Leadership Change and former Presidents in African Politics. Cape Town: HSRC Press, 73–97.Google Scholar
  21. Tomuschat, C. 2006. Human rights: between idealism and realism. In: Heyns, C. and Stefiszyn, K. eds. Human rights, peace and justice in Africa: a reader. Pretoria: Pretoria University Press, 134–135.Google Scholar
  22. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption perceptions index 2015. Available: https://www.transparency.org/cpi2015/ (Accessed 13 August 2016).
  23. Umbreit, M. and Armour, P.M. eds. 2011. Restorative justice dialogue: an essential guide for research and practice. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. United Nations Security Council. 2015. Statement by the President of the Security Council. S/PRST/2015/18. 28 October 2015. Available: http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_prst_2015_18.pdf (Accessed 25 April 2019).
  25. United Nations Security Council. 2016. Resolution 2279 (2016) adopted by the Security Council at its 7664th meeting, on 1 April 2016. S/RES/2279 (2016). Available: https://www.un.org/press/en/2016/sc12315.doc.htm (Accessed 25 April 2019).
  26. Uvin, P. 2007. Ex-combatants in Burundi: why they joined, why they left, how they fared. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  27. Uvin, P. 2008. Life after violence: a people’s story of Burundi. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  28. Willems, R., Kleingeld, J. and van Leeuwen. 2010. Connecting community security and DDR: experiences from Burundi. The Hague: Peace, Security and Development Network.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Augustine College of South AfricaJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Systematic TheologyUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations