The Challenges of Climate Change for Nonviolence
This chapter discusses the causes and consequences of climate change-induced conflicts and violence. The chapter argues that climate change does not cause armed conflicts per se, although tensions may rise in the face of water and food scarcities. In respect of climate-induced population movements, it explains that the effects are felt differently in the origin, transit and destination countries. There is currently no legal framework which recognises environmental refugees and consequently there is no legal obligation to accept refugees who are displaced by climate change. Existing conflict management and resolution infrastructures need to be strengthened, food security. Three further adaptions are recommended – managing agricultural water more effectively, developing responses in agriculture to ongoing water shortages and limiting population growth.
KeywordsClimate change Conflict Refugees Water Agriculture Population growth
- Amisi, B. B. 2016. Analysing sustainable energy: The winners and losers of mega hydropower projects in selected countries. Research Paper presented at the Journal of Green Economy & Development’s (JGED) 3rd Annual International Conference 14 July 2016 – Salt Rock Hotel Durban.Google Scholar
- AU (African Union). 1969. OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa. Available: http://www.achpr.org/files/instruments/refugee-convention/achpr_instr_conv_refug_eng.pdf. (Accessed 24 November 2016).
- Baker, S. 1997. The evolution of EU environmental policy. In: Baker, S., Kousis, M., Richardson, D. and Young, S. eds. The Politics of Sustainable Development: Theory, Policy and Practice Within the European Union. London: Routledge, 91–106.Google Scholar
- Bäthge, S. 2010. Climate change and gender: economic empowerment of women through climate mitigation and adaptation? Working Paper Published by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).Google Scholar
- Becker, J. 2012. Contested Land in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Anatomy of the Land-Related Intervention. IFHV Working Paper, 2(2): 1–74.Google Scholar
- Bird, K. 2010. How Is Poverty Transmitted Intergenerationally and What Might Be Done to Stop It in Its Tracks? Conference on Ten Years of War Against Poverty. Manchester, 11 September.Google Scholar
- Bond, P., Sharife, K., Allen, F., Amisi, B. B., Brunner, K., Castel-Branco, R., Dorsey, D., Gambirazzio, G., Hathaway, T., Nel, A. and Nham, W. 2012. The CDM cannot deliver the money to Africa. Why the Clean Development Mechanism won’t save the planet from climate change, and how African civil society Is resisting. Durban: Environmental Justice Organisations, Liabilities and Trade (EJOLT) Report.Google Scholar
- Boudreaux, K. 2009. Land conflict and genocide in Rwanda. The Electronic Journal of Sustainable Development, 1(3): 85–95.Google Scholar
- Carrington, D. 2016. Climate change will stir ‘unimaginable’ refugee crisis, says military. The Guardian (online), 1 December. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/dec/01/climate-change-trigger-unimaginable-refugee-crisis-senior-military. (Accessed on 19 December 2016).
- Coetzee, H. and Cooper, D. 1991. Wasting water. In: Cock, J. and Koch, E. eds. Going Green: People, Politics and the Environment in South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 129–138.Google Scholar
- Dinopoulos, E. and Şener, F. 2007. New directions in Schumpeterian growth theory. In: Hanusch, H. and Pyka, A. eds. Elgar Companion to Neo-Schumpeterian Economic. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Domke, D. M. 1997. Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion? Available: https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/publications/sudan-race-and-religion-in-civil-war. (Accessed 25 April 2019).
- Douxchamps, S., Ayantunde, A. and Barron, J. 2012. Evolution of Agricultural Water Management in Rainfed Crop-Livestock Systems of the Volta Basin. Challenge Program for Water and Food (CPWF) R4D Working Paper Series 04. Colombo: CGIAR CPWF.Google Scholar
- Erion, G. 2005. What’s wrong with carbon trading? In: Bond, P. and Dada, R. eds. Trouble in the Air: Global Warming and the Privatisatised Atmosphere. Durban: Centre for Civil Society, 5–27.Google Scholar
- Gubbels, P. 2013. Changing the Development Paradigm: Key to Managing Drought Risk in areas of Chronic Food Insecurity in Africa. Background Paper prepared for the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2013. Available: http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2013/en/bgdocs/Gubbels,%202012.pdf. (Accessed on 19 December 2016).
- Harrison, P. 1992. The policies and politics of informal settlement in South Africa: A historical perspective. Africa Insight, 22(1): 14–22.Google Scholar
- Hoste, J.-C. and Vlassenroot, K. 2009. Climate change and conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa: The mother of all problems? In: International Symposium Developing Countries facing Global Warming: A Post-Kyoto Assessment Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences.Google Scholar
- Huggins, C. and Ochieng, B. 2005. Paradigms, processes and practicalities of land reform in post-conflict Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Huggins, C. and Clover, J. eds. From the ground up: land rights, conflict and peace in sub-Saharan Africa. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 27–55.Google Scholar
- Huggins, C., Musahara, H., Kamungi, P. M., Oketch, J. S. and Vlassenroot, K. 2005. Conflcit in the Great Lakes Region – How is it linked to land and migration? Natural Resource Perspectives, (96): 1–4.Google Scholar
- Kelley, C. P., Mohtadi, S., Cane, M. A., Seager, R. and Kushnir, Y. 2015. Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought. Available: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3241.full.pdf. (Available 21 October 2016).
- Kirbride, M. and Grahn, R. 2008. Survival for the fittest: Pastoralism and climate change in East Africa. Oxfam International, Briefing Paper. Available: https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp116-pastoralism-climate-change-eafrica-0808.pdf. (Accessed 25 April 2019).
- Koske, J. C. 2014. Vulnerability to climate change and conflict, its impact on livelihoods and the enjoyment of human rights: case study: Pastoral communities in Northern Kenya (Turkana, Pokot and Samburu Districts). Available: https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/225296. (Accessed 17 September 2016).
- Lederach, J. P. 2003. Little Book of Conflict Transformation: Clear Articulation of the Guiding Principles by a Pioneer in the Field. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.Google Scholar
- Lederach, J. P. 1998. Beyond Violence: Building Sustainable Peace. In Weiner, E. ed. The Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence. New York: Continuum Publishing, 236–245.Google Scholar
- MacKenzie, C. 1994. Degradation of arable land resources: Policy options and considerations within the context of rural restructuring in South Africa. Volume 11. Land and Agriculture Policy Centre.Google Scholar
- Mallick, B. O. 2005. Development Theory. Rostow’s Five-Stage Model of Development and Its Relevance to Globalisation. Available: https://www.academia.edu/7226928/Development_theory_Rostows_five-stage_model_of_development_and_ist_relevance_in_Globalization. (Accessed 7 June 2006).
- McAdam, D., McCarthy, J. D. and Zald, M. N. 1996. Introduction: Opportunities, mobilising structures, and framing processes – toward a synthetic, comparative on social movements. In MacAdam, D., McCarthy, J. D. and Zald, M. N. eds. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements. Political Opportunities, Mobilising Structures, and Cultural Framing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–22.Google Scholar
- Messer, E. 2010. Climate change and Violent Conflict: A critica; literature review. Oxfam America Research Backgrounder series. Available: http://www.oxfamamerica.org/publications/climate-change-and-violent-conflict. (Accessed 21 November 2016).
- Misago, J. P., Landau, L. B. and Monson, T. 2008. Tensions, Territory and Terror: Understanding Violence against Foreigners in South Africa. Available: http://policydialogue.org/files/events/Tensions_Landau.pdf. (Accessed 18 November 2016).
- Moodley, V., Gahima, A. and Munien, S. 2010. Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda. African Journals Online, 10.2, 4(115).Google Scholar
- Oba, G. 1992. Ecological factors in land use conflicts: Land administration and food insecurity in Turkana, Kenya. Available: http://www.odi.org.uk/work/projects/pdn/papers/33a.pdf. (Accessed on 10 November 2016).
- PAI (Population Action International). 2013. Climate Change and Population: A Review of the Literature. Washington, DC: PAI.Google Scholar
- Pew Center on Global Climate Change (PCGCC). 2008. Tax Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Congressional Policy Brief. Available: https://www.c2es.org/docUploads/Taxes.pdf. (Accessed 28 December 2016).
- Pillay, S., Barolsky, V., Naidoo, V., Mohlakoana, N. and Hadland, A. 2008. Citizenship, violence and xenophobia in South Africa: Perceptions from South African communities. (Commissioned by the CEO of the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC).Google Scholar
- Prunier, G. 1995. The Rwanda Crisis 1959–1994 - History of a Genocide. London: Hurst and Co.Google Scholar
- Scudder, T. 2005. The Future of Large Dams: Dealing with Social, Environmental, Institutional and Political Costs. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Siegel, R.P. 2012. A Brief History of Biofuels. Available: http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/10/history-of-biofuels/. (Accessed 16 November 2016).
- Sundquist, E. T., Burruss, R. C., Jenkins, W. A., Murray, B. C., Kramer, A. R. and Faulkner, S. P. 2008. Carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2008-3097. Available: https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3097/pdf/CarbonFS.pdf. (Accessed 16 November 2016).
- United Nations. 1951. Convention and Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. Available: http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.pdf. (Accessed 30 November 2016).
- Uvin, P. 1998. Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
- Vidal, J. 2012. Sudan – battling the twin forces of civil war and climate change: Water stress and a food security crisis looms in Sudan, where millions of hectares of semi-desert has turned into desert. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/nov/21/sudan-civil-war-climate-change. (Accessed 16 November 2016).
- Watson, C. 2003. Pastoral women as peacemakers. Community-based Animal Health and Participatory Epidemiology Unit (CAPE) of the African Union’s Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU/IBAR), Nairobi. Available: https://www.celep.info/pastoral-women-as-peacemakers/. (Accessed 25 April 2019).
- Webb, A. and Coates, D. 2012. Biofuels and Biodiversity. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Montreal, Technical Series No. 65, 69 pages.Google Scholar
- Yonetani, M., Lavelli, C., Bower, E., Luisa Meneghetti, L. and O’Connor, K. 2015. Global estimates 2015: People displaced by disasters. Available: http://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/20150713-global-estimates-2015-en-v1.pdf. (Accessed 27 May 2019).