Customs and IoT for Monitoring Risk-Management Systems: Some Recent Applications

  • Erica VareseEmail author
  • Stefano Maria Ronco


The expansion of international trade may influence security in all stages of supply chains of goods. In this regard, the aim of this study is to present some thoughts on recent applications concerning customs and IoT for monitoring risk-management systems: the Authorized Economic Operator status and the so-called “Feri certificate”. The Authors will present a literature review and will focus their attention on the two above-mentioned case studies. Even if these tools have diverse legal and technical aspects that make them significantly different, they both simplify customs procedures and facilitate customs controls related to safety and security in all stages of supply chains of goods by adopting a risk-management strategy.


Customs IoT Risk-management systems Authorized economic operator IoT-based customs certificate 

Index Terms

Authorized economic operator (AEO) Customs Internet of things (IoT) Risk-Management 

JEL Classification

F19 G18 


  1. Afanasieva, V., Ivanov, L., & Yanushkevych, D. (2017). Modern Approaches to Risk Management and Their Use in Customs. Path of Science, 3(4), 6.1–6.14.Google Scholar
  2. Agenzia Dogane e Monopoli. (2018). Conosci l’A.E.O.—Authorized Economic Operator? (accessed 11 August 2018).
  3. Aigner, S. (2017). The Union Customs Code. Global Trade and Customs Journal, 12(2), 49–53.Google Scholar
  4. Behar, A., Manners, P., & Nelson, B. (2011). Exports and International Logistics. The World Bank.Google Scholar
  5. Campos, M. L., Morini, C., de Moraes, G. H. S. M., & Inácio, E. (2018). A Performance Model for Public-Private Partnerships: The Authorized Economic Operator as an Example. RAUSP Management Journal, 53(2), 268–279.Google Scholar
  6. Sá Porto, P., & Morini, C. (2017). Trade Facilitation, the Authorized Economic Operator and the Single Window: A Gravity Model Approach. Customs Scientific Journal, 4(2), 44–53.Google Scholar
  7. den Butter, F. A., Liu, J., & Tan, Y. H. (2012). Using IT to Engender Trust in Government-to-Business Relationships: The Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) as an Example. Government Information Quarterly, 29(2), 261–274.Google Scholar
  8. European Commission—Taxation and Customs Union. (2016a). Authorized Economic Operator Guidelines. TAXUD/B2/047/2011—Rev.6.Google Scholar
  9. European Commission—Taxation and Customs Union. (2016b). Strategic Plan 2016–2020. (accessed 27 August 2018).
  10. European Commission—Taxation and Customs Union. (2017). Report on EU Customs Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights. Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  11. European Commission—Taxation and Customs Union. (2018b). UCC Legislation. (accessed 11/08/2018).
  12. European Commission—Taxation and Customs Union. (2018c). Authorised Economic Operator. (accessed 3 August 2018).
  13. Fletcher, T. (2007). Authorised Economic Operator (AEO) Programs: IBM’s Perspective. World Customs Journal, 1(2), 61–66.Google Scholar
  14. Grotteli, M. (2015). The Safety and Security of International Trade as a Determinant of the Business Strategy of the Polish Customs Service. European Integration Studies, 9, 139–154.Google Scholar
  15. Johnson, N. D. (2001). Committing to Civil Service Reform: The Performance of Pre-shipment Inspection Under Different Institutional Regimes. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 2594.Google Scholar
  16. Lacey, M., Lisachuk, H., Giannopoulos, A., & Ogura, A. (2015). Shipping Smarter: IoT Opportunities in Transport and Logistics. Deloitte University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Laporte, B. (2011). Risk Management Systems: Using Data Mining in Developing Countries’ Customs Administrations. World Customs Journal, 5(1), 17–27.Google Scholar
  18. Laszuk, M., & Ryciuk, U. (2016). The Importance of Authorized Economic Operator Institution for the Security of Supply Chain in the International Goods Turnover of Polish Enterprises. Eurasian Journal of Business and Management, 4(1), 32–41.Google Scholar
  19. Liu, L., & Yue, C. (2013). Investigating the Impacts of Time Delays on Trade. Food Policy, 39, 108–114.Google Scholar
  20. Manuj, I., & Mentzer, J. T. (2008). Global Supply Chain Risk Management. Journal of Business Logistics, 29(1), 133–155.Google Scholar
  21. Meng, S.-D. (2017). A Study on the Role of Customs in International Trade Security and Facilitation Based on the AEO System. In DEStech Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering Conference on Advances in Management Engineering and Information Technology (AMEIT 2017).Google Scholar
  22. Miled, M. S., & Fiore, C. (2014, May). The “Authorized Economic Operator” Certification and Firm Performance. In Advanced Logistics and Transport (ICALT), 2014 International Conference on Advanced Logistics and Transport, IEEE, 167–172.Google Scholar
  23. Moïsé, E. (2013). The Costs and Challenges of Implementing Trade Facilitation Measures. OECD Trade Policy Papers, 157, OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Okazaki, Y. (2017). Implications of Big Data for Customs—How It Can Support Risk Management Capabilities. WCO Research Paper No. 39.Google Scholar
  25. Portugal-Perez, A., & Wilson, J. S. (2012). Export Performance and Trade Facilitation Reform: Hard and Soft Infrastructure. World Development, 40(7), 1295–1307.Google Scholar
  26. Sarathy, R. (2006). Security and the Global Supply Chain. Transportation Journal, 45(4), 28–51.Google Scholar
  27. Tellis, W. M. (1997). Application of a Case Study Methodology. The Qualitative Report, 3(3), 1–19.Google Scholar
  28. Tweddle, D. (2008). Logistics, Security and Compliance: The Part to Be Played by Authorized Economic Operators (AEOs) and Data Management. World Customs Journal, 2(1), 101–105.Google Scholar
  29. Weerth, C. (2011). Three Years of Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) in the EU. Global Trade & Customs Journal, 6(10), 495–499.Google Scholar
  30. Weerth, C. (2015). AEO Programmes Worldwide: From MRAs to a General AEO Agreement?! Global Trade and Customs Journal, 10(6), 228–230.Google Scholar
  31. Wolffgang, H. M., & Natzel, J. M. (2007). Authorized Economic Operator in the European Union. Global Trade & Customs Journals, 2(11/12), 377–384.Google Scholar
  32. World Customs Organization. (2018). WCO SAFE Package. (accessed 11 August 2018).
  33. Yin, R. K. (2013). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (5th ed.). Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ManagementUniversity of TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.Department of Legal StudiesUniversity of TorinoTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations