Challenges Within the Industry 4.0 Setup

  • Akshi Kumar
  • Divya GuptaEmail author
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)


The fourth industrial revolution, which is also known as Industry 4.0 elucidates future industry improvement patterns to accomplish intelligent production processes, including dependence on CPS or Cyber Physical Systems, development of Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS), and execution of smart factories. The purpose of Industry 4.0 is to manufacture an exceedingly adaptable generation model of customized and computerized items and administrations, with constant communications between individuals, products and devices amid the generation procedure. The “Industrial 4.0” idea was first seen in an article published by the German government as a high-tech policy plan for 2020, in November 2011. “Industry 4.0” rapidly ascended as the German national plan. Industry 4.0 will be a new industrial revolution, which will affect global industry. Although it is not a simple and straightforward aspect to accomplish Industry 4.0, and is presumably going to take at least a couple of years to figure it out. Right now, Industry 4.0 is an aspiration, since it incorporates various perspectives and challenges, including logical, infrastructural, financial, social and legal difficulties. This chapter presents challenges of Industry 4.0 related to the practical aspects, infrastructure requirements, cyber security and business models.


Industry 4.0 Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) Sustainability 


  1. 1.
    A. Petrillo, F. De Felice, R. Cioffi, “Fourth Industrial Revolution: Current Practices, Challenges, and Opportunities,” pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. K. Wyrwicka and B. Mrugalska, “‘INDUSTRY 4.0’—TOWARDS OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF INDUSTRY 4.0,” no. January, 2018.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Crnjac and N. Banduka, “From concept to the introduction of Industry 4.0,” no. January, pp. 0–10, 2017.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Kiss, G. Breda, and L. Muha, “Information security aspects of Industry 4.0,” Procedia Manuf., vol. 32, no. January, pp. 848–855, 2019.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Paper and D. Vuksanovi, “INDUSTRY 4.0 : THE FUTURE CONCEPTS AND NEW VISIONS OF FACTORY OF THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT,” no. October, 2017.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Vaidya, P. Ambad, and S. Bhosle, “Industry 4.0 – A Glimpse,” Procedia Manuf., vol. 20, pp. 233–238, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. A. Coda, R. M. D. Salles, F. Junqueira, D. J. S. Filho, J. R. Silva, and P. E. Miyagi, “Big data systems requirements for Industry 4.0,” 2018 13th IEEE Int. Conf. Ind. Appl. INDUSCON 2018 - Proc., pp. 1230–1236, 2019.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Khan and K. Turowski, “A Perspective on Industry 4.0 : From Challenges to Opportunities in Production Systems,” no. IoTBD, pp. 441–448, 2016.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Bordeleau, E. Mosconi, and L. A. De Santa-eulalia, “Business Intelligence in Industry 4.0 : State of the art and research opportunities,” vol. 9, pp. 3944–3953, 2018.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Baena, A. Guarin, J. Mora, J. Sauza, and S. Retat, “Learning Factory: The Path to Industry 4.0,” Procedia Manuf., vol. 9, pp. 73–80, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Posada et al., “Visual Computing as a Key Enabling Technology for Industrie 4.0 and Industrial Internet,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 26–40, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rameshwar, R., Solanki, A., Nayyar, A., & Mahapatra, B. (2020). Green and Smart Buildings: A Key to Sustainable Global Solutions. In Green Building Management and Smart Automation (pp. 146-163). IGI Global.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singh, S. P., Nayyar, A., Kaur, H., & Singla, A. (2019). Dynamic Task Scheduling using Balanced VM Allocation Policy for Fog Computing Platforms. Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience, 20(2), 433-456.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaur, A., Gupta, P., Singh, M., & Nayyar, A. (2019). Data Placement in Era of Cloud Computing: a Survey, Taxonomy and Open Research Issues. Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience, 20(2), 377-398.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Singh, P., Gupta, P., Jyoti, K., & Nayyar, A. (2019). Research on Auto-Scaling of Web Applications in Cloud: Survey, Trends and Future Directions. Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience, 20(2), 399-432.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singh, S. P., Nayyar, A., Kumar, R., & Sharma, A. (2019). Fog computing: from architecture to edge computing and big data processing. The Journal of Supercomputing, 75(4), 2070-2105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pramanik, P. K. D., Pareek, G., & Nayyar, A. (2019). Security and Privacy in Remote Healthcare: Issues, Solutions, and Standards. In Telemedicine Technologies (pp. 201-225). Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pramanik, P. K. D., Nayyar, A., & Pareek, G. (2019). WBAN: Driving e-healthcare Beyond Telemedicine to Remote Health Monitoring: Architecture and Protocols. In Telemedicine Technologies (pp. 89-119). Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Das, S., & Nayyar, A. (2019). Innovative Ideas to Manage Urban Traffic Congestion in Cognitive Cities. In Driving the Development, Management, and Sustainability of Cognitive Cities (pp. 139-162). IGI Global.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nayyar, A., Jain, R., Mahapatra, B., & Singh, A. (2019). Cyber Security Challenges for Smart Cities. In Driving the Development, Management, and Sustainability of Cognitive Cities (pp. 27-54). IGI Global.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nayyar, A., Puri, V., & Nguyen, N. G. (2019). BioSenHealth 1.0: A Novel Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)-Based Patient Health Monitoring System. In International Conference on Innovative Computing and Communications (pp. 155-164). Springer, Singapore.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nayyar, A., & Nguyen, G. N. (2018). Augmenting Dental Care: A Current Perspective. Emerging Technologies for Health and Medicine: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Robotics, Industry 4.0, 51-67.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Batth, R. S., Nayyar, A., & Nagpal, A. (2018, August). Internet of Robotic Things: Driving Intelligent Robotics of Future-Concept, Architecture, Applications and Technologies. In 2018 4th International Conference on Computing Sciences (ICCS) (pp. 151-160). IEEE.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nayyar, A., Ba, C. H., Duc, N. P. C., & Binh, H. D. (2018, August). Smart-IoUT 1.0: A Smart Aquatic Monitoring Network Based on Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT). In International Conference on Industrial Networks and Intelligent Systems (pp. 191-207). Springer, Cham.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nayyar, A., Mahapatra, B., Le, D., & Suseendran, G. (2018). Virtual Reality (VR) & Augmented Reality (AR) technologies for tourism and hospitality industry. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(2.21), 156-160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puri, V., Nayyar, A., & Raja, L. (2017). Agriculture drones: A modern breakthrough in precision agriculture. Journal of Statistics and Management Systems, 20(4), 507-518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nayyar, A., & Puri, V. (2017). Comprehensive Analysis & Performance Comparison of Clustering Algorithms for Big Data. Review of Computer Engineering Research, 4(2), 54-80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Anand Nayyar, E. (2016, November). Vikram Puri,“. In Smart Farming: IoT Based Smart Sensors Agriculture Stick for Live Temprature and Moisture Monitoring using Arduino, Cloud Computing & Solar Technology”[Online], Conference: The International Conference on Communication and Computing Systems (ICCCS-2016), November.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nayyar, A. (2011). INTEROPERABILITY OF CLOUD COMPUTING WITH WEB SERVICES. International Journal of ElectroComputational World & Knowledge Interface, 1(1).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nayyar, A. (2011). Private Virtual Infrastructure (PVI) Model for Cloud Computing. International Journal of Software Engineering Research and Practices, 1(1), 10-14.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nayyar, A., & Puri, V. (2016). Data glove: Internet of things (iot) based smart wearable gadget. British Journal of Mathematics & Computer Science, 15(5).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Development, “Industry 4.0 and Urban Development The Case of India Bernhard Müller/Otthein Herzog acatech MATERIALIEN,” no. February 2016, 2015.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Lee, H. Kao, and S. Yang, “Service innovation and smart analytics for Industry 4.0 and big data environment,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 16, pp. 3–8, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Lu, “Journal of Industrial Information Integration Industry 4.0 : A survey on technologies, applications and open research issues,” J. Ind. Inf. Integr., vol. 6, pp. 1–10, 2017.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Sanders, C. Elangeswaran, and J. Wulfsberg, “Industry 4. 0 Implies Lean Manufacturing : Research Activities in Industry 4.0 Function as Enablers for Lean Manufacturing,” vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 811–833, 2016.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Gyorffi, “Digitising Industry (Industry 4.0) and Cybersecurity.”Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Schmidt, M. Michael, H. Ralf-christian, C. Reichstein, P. Neumaier, and P. Jozinovi, “Industry 4.0- Potentials for Creating Smart Products : Empirical Research Results,” vol. 2, pp. 16–27, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Salkin, M. Oner, A. Ustundag, and E. Cevikcan, “A Conceptual Framework for Industry 4.0,” pp. 3–23, 2017.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C. A. Havle and C. Ucler, “Enablers for Industry 4.0,” ISMSIT 2018 - 2nd Int. Symp. Multidiscip. Stud. Innov. Technol. Proc., pp. 1–6, 2018.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Moktadir, S. M. Ali, S. Kusi-sarpong, and A. A. Shaikh, “process safety and environmental protection,” Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 2018.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Khan and K. Turowski, “A Survey of Current Challenges in Manufacturing Industry and Preparation for Industry 4.0,” pp. 15–27.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Alkhalefah, “Requirements of the Smart Factory System : A Survey and Perspective,” 2018.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Gorecky, S. Weyer, A. Hennecke, and D. Zühlke, “Design and Instantiation of a Modular System Architecture for Smart Factories,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 49, no. 31, pp. 79–84, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    “Whitepaper: IT and IT infrastructure in the context of Industry 4.0 Bernd Hanstein, Rittal.”Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Frost & Sullivan, “Cyber Security in the Era of Industrial IoT,” 2017.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Bligh-wall, “Industry 4.0: Security imperatives for IoT — converging networks, increasing risks,” vol. 1, pp. 61–68, 2017.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    B. Ervural, “Overview of Cyber Security in the Industry 4. 0 Era Overview of Cyber Security in the Industry 4.0 Era,” no. September 2018, 2019.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Dawson, “Cyber Security in Industry 4.0 : The Pitfalls of Having Hyperconnected Systems,” no. November, 2018.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    P. Sethi and S. R. Sarangi, “Internet Of Things: Architecture, Issues and Applications,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., vol. 07, no. 06, pp. 85–88, 2017.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Varghese and D. Tandur, “Wireless requirements and challenges in Industry 4.0,” pp. 634–638, 2014.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. Suo, J. Wan, C. Zou, and J. Liu, “Security in the internet of things: A review,” Proc. - 2012 Int. Conf. Comput. Sci. Electron. Eng. ICCSEE 2012, vol. 3, no. March, pp. 648–651, 2012.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. A. Kumar, T. Vealey, and H. Srivastava, “Security in internet of things: Challenges, solutions and future directions,” Proc. Annu. Hawaii Int. Conf. Syst. Sci., vol. 2016–March, pp. 5772–5781, 2016.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Inayat Ali, Sonia Sabir, and Zahid Ullah, “Internet of Things Security, Device Authentication and Access Control: A Review,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Inf. Secur. (IJCSIS), vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 456–466, 2016.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    N. Tuptuk and S. Hailes, “Security of smart manufacturing systems,” J. Manuf. Syst., vol. 47, no. November 2017, pp. 93–106, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    L. Barreto, A. Amaral, A. Santana, P. Afonso, A. Zanin, and R. Wernke, “Network and information security challenges within Industry Costing models,” Procedia Manuf., vol. 13, pp. 1253–1260, 2017.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    G. D. Rodosek and M. Golling, “Cyber Security : Challenges and Application,” pp. 179–180, 2013.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. Abomhara and G. M. Køien, “Cyber Security and the Internet of Things : Vulnerabilities, Threats, Intruders,” vol. 4, pp. 65–88, 2015.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. ARNOLD, D. KIEL, and K.-I. VOIGT, “How the Industrial Internet of Things Changes Business Models in Different Manufacturing Industries,” Int. J. Innov. Manag., vol. 20, no. 08, p. 1640015, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Ignacio, “Business model innovation through Industry 4.0 : A review,” Procedia Manuf., vol. 22, pp. 4–10, 2018.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    K. D. Thoben, S. A. Wiesner, and T. Wuest, “‘Industrie 4.0’ and smart manufacturing-a review of research issues and application examples,” Int. J. Autom. Technol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 4–16, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. Maslarić, S. Nikoličić, and D. Mirčetić, “Logistics Response to the Industry 4.0: the Physical Internet,” Open Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 511–517, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    E. Fleisch, M. Weinberger, and F. Wortmann, “Geschäftsmodelle im Internet der Dinge,” HMD Prax. der Wirtschaftsinformatik, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 812–826, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. M. A. Iivari Petri; Komi, Marjaana; Tihinen, Maarit; Valtanen, Kristiina, “Toward Ecosystemic Business Models in the Context of Industrial Internet,” J. Bus. Model., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 42–59, 2016.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Ehret and J. Wirtz, “Unlocking value from machines: business models and the industrial internet of things,” J. Mark. Manag., vol. 33, no. 1–2, pp. 111–130, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Y. Zhang, T. Qu, O. Ho, and G. Q. Huang, “Real-time work-in-progress management for smart object-enabled ubiquitous shop-floor environment,” Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 431–445, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Stock and G. Seliger, “Opportunities of Sustainable Manufacturing in Industry 4.0,” vol. 40, no. Icc, pp. 536–541, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. M. Müller, “What Drives the Implementation of Industry 4.0 ? The Role of Opportunities and Challenges in the Context of Sustainability,” 2018.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    G. Prause, “Sustainable business models and structures for industry 4.0 JOURNAL OF SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES,” vol. 2, no. December 2015, 2016.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    R. Tsvetkova, “What does Industry 4.0 mean for sustainable development?”, International Scientific Journal of Scientific Technical Union of Mechanical Engineering, Industry 4.0, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp. 294–297, 2017.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. S. Portnoff et al., “Tools for Automated Analysis of Cybercriminal Markets,” pp. 657–666, 2017.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringDelhi Technological UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.School of Computing Science and EngineeringGalgotias UniversityNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations