Global Trends in Facing the Triple Ds: Dynamics, Challenges, and Opportunities

  • Thorsten WiechmannEmail author


This chapter provides an overview of selected demographic and economic challenges for local communities in America, Europe, and East Asia. Special attention is given to ongoing processes of depopulation and deindustrialization. These trends are well known in many countries, but all too often thought of and treated separately. Instead, these trends have to be understood in their interactions, and integrated strategies of inclusive development have to be implemented to deal with urban shrinkage. The shrinking cities phenomenon represents a major challenge to review the principles upon which urban policy has traditionally been based. Creative and flexible urban strategies that consider the local and national contexts are needed in highly uncertain environments. A realistic view might focus on inclusive development instead of reversing economic decline in one-sided GDP growth.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TU DortmundDortmundGermany

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