Advertisement

Fermentation of Oil Extraction: Bioethanol, Acetone and Butanol Production

  • Manoj Kumar MahapatraEmail author
  • Arvind Kumar
Chapter
Part of the Biofuel and Biorefinery Technologies book series (BBT, volume 10)

Abstract

Amidst several global issues, the ever increasing environmental pollution and simultaneous depletion of conventional fuel reserves have evolved as major challenges to deal with. The quest for alternative sources of energy with environmental sustainability has led the scientific community to explore the several options of biomass energy. Biofuels are the biomass-derived liquid fuels, which are capable of supplementing petroleum fuels, even can replace them. Pyrolytic oil and biodiesel are some of the liquid biofuels that have come to the existence, but when the fermentation-based biofuels are considered bioethanol and biobutanol have emerged as the available options. A unique fermentation process named acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation carried out by Clostridium sp. is the preferable one for synthesizing biofuels like bioethanol and biobutanol as well as an industrial solvent like acetone. There are several types of biomasses available which can serve as raw materials for ABE fermentation. In order to make the process economical and environmentally viable, the usage of lignocellulosic biomasses is a common practice. However, the lignocellulosic biomasses have to undergo pretreatment to release simple sugars in an aqueous form called as hydrolysate. The hydrolysate has to be detoxified to remove inhibitory compounds before feeding them as the substrates for fermentation. The fermentation process in itself is really challenging and needs effective regulation for uninterrupted progress. The efficiency of the fermentation can be enhanced by modifying the bacteria by mutation/genetic engineering to make them perform optimally even during adverse conditions. Product recovery from fermentation broth has emerged as the toughest task. Gas stripping and adsorption are a few among the other methods to be energy efficient and effective in product separation. Biofuel production via fermentation on an industrial scale is still in a rudimentary state and demands extensive research work for making the commercial scale production and usage a reality.

Keywords

Biomass Biofuels ABE fermentation Lignocellulosic biomass Pretreatment Hydrolysate Detoxification Genetic engineering Gas stripping Adsorption 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Springer Nature for providing an opportunity to become a part of the book series. The authors would like to convey their gratitude towards all the editors of the book especially Dr. Ali Asghar Rastegari, Dr. Ajar Nath Yadav and Mr. Nareshkumar Mani, Project Coordinator, Books Production, Springer Nature for providing all the requisite information in due course of time. Last but not the least the authors are also thankful to the Ministry of human resource development (MHRD), Government of India and the Director of NIT, Rourkela for providing necessary facilities during the course of preparation of this literary work.

References

  1. Abdehagh N, Tezel FH, Thibault J (2014) Separation techniques in butanol production: Challenges and developments. Biomass Bioenergy 60:222–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alizadeh H, Teymouri F, Gilbert TI, Dale BE (2005) Pretreatment of switchgrass by ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX). Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121–123:1133–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alriksson B, Horvath IS, Sjöde A, Nilvebrant N-O, Jönsson LJ (2005) Ammonium hydroxide detoxification of spruce acid hydrolysates. In: Davison BH, Evans BR, Finkelstein M, McMillan JD (eds) Twenty-sixth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 911–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angerbasch A, Heinz V, Knorr D (2000) Effects of pulsed electric fields on cell membranes in real food systems. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 1:135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azzam M (1989) Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation. J Environ Sci Health B 24(4):421–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balat M (2011) Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: a review. Energy Convers Manag 52:858–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballesteros I, Negro MJ, Oliva JM et al (2006) Ethanol production from steam explosion pretreated wheat straw. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 129–132:496–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baral N, Shah A (2014) Microbial inhibitors: formation and effects on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:9151–9172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beguin P, Aubert JP (1994) The biological degradation of cellulose. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13:25–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cadoche L, Lopez GD (1989) Assessment of size reduction as a preliminary step in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic wastes. Biol Wastes 30:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carioca JOB, Friedrich H, Ehrenberger S (2011) Biofuels: from hopes to reality. In: Santos Bernardes MA (ed) Biofuel production–recent developments and prospects, 1st edn. Intech open access publisher, Rijeka, Croatia, pp 521–546Google Scholar
  12. Cascon RH, Choudhari SK, Nisola GM et al (2011) Partitioning of butanol and other fermentation broth components in phosphonium and ammonium based ionic liquids and their toxicity to solventogenic clostridia. Sep Purif Technol 78:164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen C, Fawcett A, Posner A et al (2009) Butanol by two stage fermentation. https://repository.upenn.edu/cbe_sdr/4/. Accessed 30 July 2018
  14. Cheng J (2010) Introduction. In: Cheng J (ed) Biomass to renewable energy processes, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, USA, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  15. Cherubini F (2010) The biorefinery concept: using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals. Energy Convers Manage 51:1412–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cho DH, Lee YJ, Um Y et al (2009) Detoxification of model phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysates with peroxidase for butanol production from Clostridium beijerinckii. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 83:1035–1043Google Scholar
  17. Connor MR, Cann AF, Lio JC (2010) 3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:1155–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalena F, Senatore A, Tursi A et al (2017) Bioenergy production from second- and third-generation feedstocks. In: Dalena F, Basile A, Rossi C (eds) Bioenergy systems for the future, 1st edn. Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Duxford, United Kingdom, pp 559–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Devi Gottumukkala L, Görgens JF (2016) Biobutanol production from Lignocllulosics. In: Singh RS, Pandey A, Gnansounou E (ed) Biofuels production and future prospectives, 1st edn. CRC press, Taylor and Francis group, Boca Raton, pp 283-309Google Scholar
  20. Dürre P (2007) Biobutanol: an attractive biofuel. Biotechnol J 2:1525–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dürre P (2011) Fermentative production of butanol—the academic perspective. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22(3):331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Efremenko EN, Stepanov NA, Nikolskaya AB et al (2011) Biocatalysts based on immobilized cells of microorganisms in the production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Catal Ind 3(1):41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Esteghlalian A, Hashimoto AG, Fenske J, Penner MH (1997) Modelling and optimization of the dilute-sulfuric-acid pretreatment of corn stover, poplar and switchgrass. Bioresour Technol 59:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Euphrosine-Moy V, Lasry T, Bes RS et al (1991) Degradation of poplar lignin with ozone. Ozone Sci Eng 13(2):239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ezeji TC, Karcher PM, Qureshi N et al (2005) Improving performance of a gas stripping-based recovery system to remove butanol from Clostridium beijerinckii fermentation. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ezeji T, Qureshi N, Blaschek HP (2004) Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) production from concentrated substrate: reduction in substrate inhibition by fed-batch technique and product inhibition by gas stripping. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63:653–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ezeji TC, Qureshi N, Blascheck HP (2007a) Butanol production from agricultural residues: Impact of degradation products on Clostridium beijerinckii growth and butanol fermentation. Biotechnol Bioeng 97:1460–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ezeji T, Qureshi N, Blaschek HP (2007b) Production of acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) in a continuous flow bioreactor using degermed corn and Clostridium beijerinckii. Process Biochem 42:34–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. German J, Survase S, Berezina O et al (2012) Butanol production from lignocellulosics. Biotechnol Lett 34:1415–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goyal HB, Seal D, Saxena RC (2008) Biofuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: a review. Renew Sust Energy Rev 12:504–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gressel J (2008) Transgenics are imperative for biofuel crops. Plant Sci 174:246–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Groot WJ, Soedjak HS, Donck PB et al (1990) Butanol recovery from fermentations by liquid-liquid extraction and membrane solvent extraction. Bioprocess Eng 5:203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guiot SR, Frigon JC (2012) Anaerobic digestion as an effective biofuel production technology. In: Hallenbeck PC (ed) Microbial technologies in advanced biofuels production, 1st edn. Springer, New York US, pp 143–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harris LM, Desai RP, Welker NE et al (2000) Characterization of recombinant strains of the Clostridium acetobutylicum butyrate kinase inactivation mutant: need for new phenomenological models for solventogenesis and butanol inhibition? Biotechnol Bioeng 67:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hatakka AI (1983) Pretreatment of wheat straw by white-rot fungi for enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 18:350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heap JT, Ehsaan M, Cooksley CM et al (2012) Integration of DNA into bacterial chromosomes from plasmids without a counter-selection marker. Nucleic Acids Res 40(8):e59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hillmann F, Fischer R-J, Saint-Prix F et al (2008) PerR acts as a switch for oxygen tolerance in the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum. Mol Microbiol 68:848–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huang WC, Ramey DE, Yang ST (2004) Continuous production of butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor. Appl Biotechem Biotechnol 115:887–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jiang Y, Xu C, Dong F et al (2009) Disruption of the acetoacetate decarboxylase gene insolvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum increases the butanol ratio. Metab Eng 11:284–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones JW, Paredes CJ, Tracy B et al (2008) The transcriptional program underlying the physiology of clostridial sporulation. Genome Biol 9(7):R114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kuhad RC, Singh A, Eriksson KE (1997) Microorganisms and enzymes involved in degradation of plant fiber cell walls. Adv Biochem Eng/Biotechnol 57:45–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kumar M, Gayen K (2011) Developments in biobutanol production: new insights. Appl Energy 88:1999–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kumar P, Barret DM, Delwiche MJ, Strove P (2009) Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem Res 48(8):3713–3729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee SY, Park JH, Jang SH, Nielsen LK, Kim J, Jung KS (2008) Fermentative butanol production by clostridia. Biotechnol Bioeng 101:209–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lin YL, Blaschek HP (1983) Butanol production by a butanol-tolerant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum in extruded corn broth. Appl Environ Microbiol 45(3):966–973Google Scholar
  46. Liu F, Liu L, Feng X (2005) Separation of acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) from dilute aqueous solutions by pervaporation. Sep Purif Technol 42(3):273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu K, Atiyeh HK, Pardo-Planas O et al (2015) Butanol production from hydrothermolysis-pretreated switchgrass: Quantification of inhibitors and detoxification of hydrolyzate. Bioresour Technol 189:292–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu Z, Ying Y, Li F et al (2010) Butanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 55025 from wheat bran. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 37(5):495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maddox IS (1982) Use of silicalite for the adsorption of n-butanol from fermentation liquids. Biotechnol Lett 4:759–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mariano AP, Costa CBB, Angelis DDFD et al (2010) Dynamics of a continuous flash fermentation for butanol production. Chem Eng Trans 20:285–290Google Scholar
  51. McKendry P (2002) Energy production from biomass (part 2): conversion technologies. Bioresour Technol 83:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mes-Hartree M, Dale BE, Craig WK (1988) Comparison of steam and ammonia pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 29:462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Morrison WH, Akin DE (1990) Water soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses. J Agric Food Chem 38:678–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nanda S, Dalai AK, Kozinzki JA (2014) Butanol and ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock: biomass pretreatment and bioconversion. Energy Sc and Eng 2(3):138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nguyen N, Fargues C, Guiga W et al (2015) Assessing nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. J Memb Sci 487:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nigam PS, Singh A (2011) Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources. Prog Energy Combust Sci 37:52–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. de Oliveira RA, Vaz Rossell CE, Venus J et al (2018) Detoxification of sugarcane-derived hemicellulosic hydrolysate using a lactic acid producing strain. J Biotechnol 278:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oudshoorn A, Van der Wielen LAM, Straathof AJJ (2009) Assessment of options for selective 1-butanol recovery from aqueous solution. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:7325–7336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Perez J, Dorado JM, Rubia TD, Martinez J (2002) Biodegradation and biological treatment of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin: an overview. Int Microbiol 5:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Qureshi N, Blaschek HP (1999) Butanol recovery from model solution/fermentation broth by pervaporation: evaluation of membrane performance. Biomass Bioenergy 17:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Qureshi N, Maddox IS (1991) Integration of continuous production and recovery of solvents from whey permeate: use of immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum in a fluidized bed reactor coupled with gas stripping. Bioprocess Eng 6:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Qureshi N, Maddox IS (2005) Reduction in butanol inhibition by perstraction: utilization of concentrated lactose/whey permeate by Clostridium acetobutylicum to enhance butanol fermentation economics. Food Bioprod Process 83(C1):43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Qureshi N, Saha BC, Dien B et al (2010) Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: part I—use of barley straw hydrolysate. Biomass Bioenergy 34(4):559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ranjan A, Moholkar VS (2012) Biobutanol: science, engineering, and economics. Int J Energy Res 36(3):277–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rao S, Parulekar BB (2009) Biomass energy resources and conversion processes. In: Rao S, Parulekar BB (eds) Energy Technology, 3rd edn. Khanna Publishers, India, pp 387–411Google Scholar
  66. Roffler SR, Blanch HW, Wilke CR (1988) In situ extractive fermentation of acetone and butanol. Biotechnol Bioeng 31:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shamsudin S, Kalil MSH, Yusoff WMW (2006) Production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 with different immobilization systems. Pak J Biol Sci 9(10):1923–1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Srirangan K, Akawi L, Moo-Young M et al (2012) Towards sustainable production of clean energy carriers from biomass resource. Appl Energy 100:172–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sun Y, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 83:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Survase SA, Sklavounos EG et al (2011) Continuous acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation using SO2ethanol–water spent liquor from spruce. Bioresour Technol 102(23):10996–11002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Survase SA, van Heiningen A, Granstro ¨m T (2012) Continuous bio-catalytic conversion of sugar mixture to acetone–butanol–ethanol by immobilized C. acetobutylicum DSM792. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93(6):2309–16Google Scholar
  72. Syed Q, Nadeem M, Nelofer R (2008) Enhanced butanol production by mutant strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum in molasses medium. Turk J Biochem 33(1):25–30Google Scholar
  73. Takacs E, Wojnarovits L, Foldvary C et al (2000) Effect of combined gamma-irradiation and alkali treatment on cotton cellulose. Radiat Phys Chem 57:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tashiro Y, Shinto H, Hayashi M et al (2007) Novel high efficient butanol production from butyrate by non-growing C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564) with methyl viologen. J Biosci Bioeng 104(3):238–40Google Scholar
  75. Tashiro Y, Takeda K, Kobayashi G et al (2004) High butanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in fed-batch culture with pH-stat continuous butyric acid and glucose feeding method. J Biosci Bioeng 98(4):263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thring RW, Chorent E, Overend R (1990) Recovery of a solvolytic lignin: effects of spent liquor/acid volume ratio, acid concentration and temperature. Biomass 23:289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tijmensen MJA, Faaij APC, Hamelinck CN et al (2002) Exploration of the possibilities for production of Fischer Tropsch liquids and power via biomass gasification. Biomass Bioenergy 23:129–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ujor V, Agu CV, Gopalan V, Ezeji TC (2014) Glycerol supplementation of the growth medium enhances in situ detoxification of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii during butanol fermentation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:6511–6521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vidal PF, Molinier J (1988) Ozonolysis of lignins-improvement of invitro digestibility of poplar sawdust. Biomass 16:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wang S, Zhang Y, Dong H et al (2011) Formic acid triggers the “Acid Crash” of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(5):1674–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang Y, Chung TS, Wang H (2009) Butanol isomer separation using polyamide-imide/CD mixed matrix membranes via pervaporation. Chem Eng Sci 64:5198–5209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wertz J, Bédué O (2013) Introduction. In: Wertz J, Bédué O (eds) Lignocellulosic biorefineries, 1st edn. EPFL Press, Lausanne, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  83. Wilson J, Deschatelets L, Nishikawa NK (1989) Comparative fermentability of enzymatic and acid hydrolysates of steam pretreated aspen wood hemicellulose by Pichiastipis CBS 5776. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 31:592–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wingren A, Galbe M, Zacchi G (2003) Techno-economic evaluation of producing ethanol from softwood: comparison of SSF and SHF and identification of bottlenecks. Biotechnol Prog 19:1109–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yang X, Tsai GJ, Tsao GT (1994) Enhancement of in situ adsorption on the acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Sep Technol 4:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang L, Xu C, Champagne P (2010) Overview of recent advances in thermochemical conversion of biomass. Energy Convers Manag 51:969–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zheng YZ, Lin HM, Tsao GT (1998) Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion. Biotechnol Prog 14:890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zheng YN, Li LZ, Xian M et al (2009) Problems with the microbial production of butanol. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:1127–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia

Personalised recommendations