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Ultrasound of Neck Lymph Nodes

  • Yury N. Patrunov
  • Alexander N. Sencha
  • Munir G. Tukhbatullin
  • Ekaterina A. Sencha
Chapter

Abstract

Lymph nodes in the neck have been historically divided into seven levels based upon surgical anatomy. The main problem with the ultrasound assessment of regional metastases of thyroid malignancies is the large number of diseases that are accompanied by lymph node enlargement and thus the difficulties involved in the differential diagnosis of the origin of the enlargement. Enlargement of a lymph node of the neck may appear as a manifestation of a variety of diseases, such as specific or nonspecific inflammation of head and neck organs, metastases, and hemoblastoses. The principle ultrasound signs of lymph node differentiation are the size, shape, structure, and vascularization. A normal lymph node has a width of up to 10 mm on transverse scan. Two main components of the lymph node—the cortex and medulla—are usually well differentiated. Vessels, if any are detected, are usually located within the hilum in normal or reactive lymph nodes. Even in large benign hyperplastic lymph nodes, the vascular pattern remains regular. US features that are suspicious for a malignant process in neck lymph nodes are listed in the chapter. The site of the metastasis does not directly correspond to the location of the primary tumor.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yury N. Patrunov
    • 1
  • Alexander N. Sencha
    • 2
  • Munir G. Tukhbatullin
    • 3
  • Ekaterina A. Sencha
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsCenter for Radiological Diagnostics of Non-State Healthcare Institution Yaroslavl Railway Clinic of JSC “Russian Railways”YaroslavlRussia
  2. 2.Department of Visual and Functional DiagnosticsNational Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsKazan State Medical Academy – Branch Campus of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Further Professional Education, Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationKazanRussia
  4. 4.Ultrasound Diagnostics DepartmentMedical Diagnostic CenterMoscowRussia

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