Empowering Communities and Improving Public Services Through Open Data: South African Local Government Perspective
The concept of open data has rapidly permeated the design and implementation of local government systems. Coupled with appropriate requisite and appropriate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), public services are delivered on open platforms and domains further opening up transparency and accountability. Embedded on Open Government Data and e-government, South Africa is pushing to mitigate corruption and inefficiency in its public delivery platforms, especially at the local government levels. Using extensive literature review exploring both scholarly sources, policy and strategy documents from both the public and private sector, this chapter aims to provide a deeper understanding of the role of open data by local municipalities in South Africa. It will briefly discuss the importance of open data to local government in order to benefit its community especially in the realm of contemporary public governance models, discuss ways of promoting citizen participation, and, most importantly, offer necessary aspects for municipal officials to consider before formalising transparency policies. It is intended to help local government officials take first steps in creating municipal transparency and openness policies.
- Alexopoulos, C., Zuiderwijk, A., Charapabidis, Y., Loukis, E., & Janssen, M. (2014). Designing a second generation of open data platforms: Integrating open data and social media. In M. Janssen, H. J. Scholl, M. A. Wimmer, & F. Bannister (Eds.), 13th international conference on electronic government (EGOV), Sep 2014, Dublin, Ireland (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS-8653) (pp. 230–241). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. Electronic Government. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44426-9_19. hal-01401747.Google Scholar
- Bagui, L., Sigwejo, A., & Bytheway, A. (2011). Public participation in government: Assessing m-participation in South Africa and Tanzania. In A. Koch & P. A. van Brakel (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th annual conference on world wide web applications (pp. 5–26). Johannesburg: Cape Peninsula University of Technology.Google Scholar
- Benyon, S. Sam Qaqamba Beynon on Twitter. Twitter. Accessed 30 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Birkinshaw, P. (2006). Transparency as a human right. In C. Hood & D. Heald (Eds.), Transparency: The key to better governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bradshaw, P. (2014). Transparency opportunity: Holding power to account – or making power accountable? In N. Bowles, J. T. Hamilton, & D. Levy (Eds.), Transparency in politics and the media: Accountability and open government. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
- Braunschwei, K., Eberius, J., Thiele, M., & Lehner, W. (2012). The state of open data: Limits of current open data platforms. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f567/00355734c88ecb04005b84eb80362e35803f.pdf (Accessed 18 March 2019).
- Davis, T., & Mintz, M. (2009). Design features for the social web: The architecture of Deme. In Proceedings of 8th international workshop on web-oriented software technologies-IWWOST.Google Scholar
- Emery, F. (1993). The agenda for the next wave. In M. Emery (Ed.), Participative design for participative democracy (pp. 30–39). Canberra: Centre for Continuing Education, The Australian National University.Google Scholar
- Habermas, J. (1989). The structural transformation of the public sphere. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Huijboom, N., & Van den Broek, T. (2011). Open data: An international comparison of strategies. European Journal of ePractice, 12(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
- Madumo, O. S. (2012). The promotion of developmental local government to facilitate a developmental state. Administratio Publica, 20(3), 40–54.Google Scholar
- Margo, M. J. (2012). A review of social media use in E-government. Administrative Sciences, Administrative Sciences, 2(2), 148–161.Google Scholar
- Netswera, F. G., & Kgalane, T. S. (2014). The underlying factors behind violent municipal service delivery protests in South Africa. Journal of Public Administration, 49, 261–273.Google Scholar
- Noveck, B. S. (2009). Wiki Government: How technology can make government better, democracy stronger, and citizens more powerful. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
- OECD, ISOC and UNESCO. (2013). The relationship between local content, internet development and access prices (OECD digital economy papers, no. 217). Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- Open Government Partnership. http://www.opengovpartnership.org. Accesses 24 June 2018.
- Republic of South Africa. (1996). Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. As adopted on 8 May 1996 and amended on 11 October 1996 by the Constitutional Assembly. Pretoria: Parliament of South Africa Republic of South Africa. http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/constitution/SAConstitutionweb-eng.pdf. Accessed 12 July 2018.
- Republic of South Africa. (2000). Promotion of access to information act 2 of 2000. Pretoria: Parliament of South Africa, Republic of South Africa. http://www.dfa.gov.za/department/accessinfo_act.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2018.
- Sandoval-Almazan, R., & Ramon Gil-Garcia, J. (2016). Toward an integrative assessment of open government: Proposing conceptual lenses and practical components. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 26(1–2), 170–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/10919392.2015.1125190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schuler, D., & Namioka, A. (Eds.). (1993). Participatory design: Principles and practices. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.Google Scholar
- Shkabatur, J. (2013). Transparency with (out) accountability: Open government in the United States. Yale Law and Policy Review, 31(1), 79–140.Google Scholar
- South Africa. (1998). The Local Government Municipal Systems Act 117 of 1998. Pretoria: Government Printer.Google Scholar
- South Africa. (2011). The South African National Development Plan (NDP), (2030). Cape Town: Planning Commission.Google Scholar
- South Africa. Local Development Plan 2030. https://www.gov.za/issues/national-development-plan-2030. Accesed 18 March 2019.
- Srivastava, S. C., & Teo, T. S. H. (2007). What facilitates e-government development? A cross-country analysis. Electronic Government, 4(4), 365–378.Google Scholar
- Teo, T. S. H., Srivastava, S. C., & Jiang, L. (2009). Trust and electronic government success: An empirical study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 25(3), 99–132.Google Scholar
- Thornhill, C. (1995). Local government: Government closest to the people. Pretoria: HSRC Publishers.Google Scholar
- Thurston, A. (2013). Transparency can “break cycle of poor governance” in developing world. Guardian Professional. Retrieved at 19 December. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2013/mar/12/transparency-break-cycle-poor-governance.
- Ubaldi, B. (2013). Open government data: Towards empirical analysis of open government data initiatives. OECD Working Papers on Public Governance, No. 22.Google Scholar
- Van der Waldt, G. (2015). Unpublished draft UJ internal handbook. Local governance: Leading sustainable communities. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg.Google Scholar
- Verhulst, S., & Young, A. (2016). Open data impact, when demand and supply meet. Key findings of the open data impact case studies. Available at: http://odimpact.org/static/files/open-data-impact-key-findings.pdf. Accessed 1 July 2018.
- Yu, H., & Robinson, D. (2012). The new ambiguity of “open government”. Princeton CITP/Yale ISP Working Paper. Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2012489. Accessed 2 July 2018.