Advertisement

Trust and Indirect Reports

  • Mostafa Morady Moghaddam
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives in Pragmatics, Philosophy & Psychology book series (PEPRPHPS, volume 21)

Abstract

Everyday interaction is replete with situations where individuals must decide whether they should trust their conversation partner. In this chapter, the concepts of trust and mistrust are discussed and it is argued how they are conceptualised in indirect reporting. It is examined that trust and sensitivity to misinformation can be regulated on the basis of both social and cognitive characteristics. As related to the social aspect, two perspectives can be effective in the formation of trust: social stratification (macro features) and social relations (micro features). Regarding the cognitive features underlying trust, individuals must decide whether they should trust others and take risks, or rather, be more sensitive, searching for cues and clues to ensure that the conversation partner is trustworthy. Trust is not just an individual trait, something that is only regulated by cognitive factors. Trust can be interpreted based on discursive as well as conventional rules. In this regard, this chapter distinguishes between ‘trust 1’ and ‘trust 2’. The indirect reporter’s revealing of someone else’s utterances indicates that s/he is trying to consider a third party as evidence for the reporter’s trustworthiness. Indirect reporting can be considered a type of self-disclosure, where the reporter shares some personal experiences with someone else (the hearer). And lastly, ‘mutual trust’ and how it is shaped during indirect reports are explored.

Keywords

Debilitative risk Doubt Facilitative risk Mistrust Risk-taking Trust 

References

  1. Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bond, R., & Smith, P. B. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch’s line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 111–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buchan, N. R., Croson, R. T. A., & Solnick, S. (2008). Trust and gender: An examination of behavior and beliefs in the investment game. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68(3–4), 466–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castelfranchi, C., & Falcone, R. (2010). Trust theory: A socio-cognitive and computational model. Chichester, UK: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Demolombe, R. (2001). To trust information sources: A proposal for a modal logical framework. In C. Castelfranchi & Y. H. Tan (Eds.), Trust and deception in virtual societies (pp. 111–124). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edelman, M. J. (2001). The politics of misinformation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gambetta, D., & Hamill, H. (2005). Streetwise: How taxi drivers establish their customers’ trustworthiness. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  8. Gargiulo, M., & Ertug, G. (2006). The dark side of trust. In R. Bachmann & A. Zaheer (Eds.), The handbook of trust research (pp. 165–186). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  9. Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond cultures. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books/A Division of Random House.Google Scholar
  10. Hardin, R. (2006). Trust. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  11. Herreros, F. (2004). The problem of forming social capital: Why trust? London/New York: Palgrave/Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill, C., & O’Hara O’Connor, E. (2006). A cognitive theory of trust. Washington University Law Review, 84, 1717. Available at https://scholarship.law.umn.edu/faculty_articles/180Google Scholar
  13. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Hoorens, V., & Poortinga, Y. (2000). Behavior in social context. In K. Pawlik & M. Rosenzweig (Eds.), International handbook of psychology (pp. 40–63). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jackson, D. (1997). Dynamic organisations: The challenge of change. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. LeBlanc, R. M. (1999). Bicycle citizens: The political world of the Japanese housewife. Berkeley, CA/London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lomax, A., & Berkowitz, N. (1972). The evolutionary taxonomy of culture. Science, 177, 228–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lorini, E., & Demolombe, R. (2009). From trust in information sources to trust in communication systems: An analysis in modal logic. In J. C. Meyer & J. Broersen (Eds.), Knowledge representation for agents and multi-agent systems (Lecture notes in Computer Science, vol. 5605). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  19. Luhmann, N. (1979). Trust and power. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Malina, B. J. (2009). Social-scientific approaches and the gospel of Matthew. In M. A. Powell (Ed.), Methods for Matthew (pp. 154–193). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McKnight, D. H., & Chervany, N. L. (2006). Reflections on an initial trust-building model. In R. Bachmann & A. Zaheer (Eds.), Handbook of trust research (pp. 29–51). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  22. McMahon, T. F. (2004). Ethical leadership through transforming justice. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  23. Möllering, G. (2006). Trust: Reason, routine, reflexivity. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  24. Pelto, P. J. (1968). The difference between “tight” and “loose” societies. Transactions, 5, 37–40.Google Scholar
  25. Santibáñez, C. (2012). The principle of relevance in the light of cooperation and trust: Discussing Sperber and Wilson’s theory. Pragmatics and Cognition, 20(3), 483–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sztompka, P. (2003). Trust: A sociological study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Takash, J. (2008). Results through relationships: Building trust, performance, and profit through people. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Weber, L. R., & Carter, A. I. (2003). The social construction of trust. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yamagishi, T. (1998). The structure of trust: An evolutionary game of mind and society. Tokyo: Tokyo University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mostafa Morady Moghaddam
    • 1
  1. 1.Shahrood University of TechnologyShahroodIran

Personalised recommendations