Advertisement

Game Changer: Socioeconomic Transformation and Emergence of the JDP in 2002

  • Sevinç Bermek
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter brings to the surface an angle previous research on Turkish political parties has neglected: socioeconomic transformation. The analysis highlights how the adopted economic models shape the changes in socioeconomic structures and how parties have responded by developing a new set of policies that fit the demands of their constituencies. The chapter demonstrates that the economic decisions of 1980 have led to an emergence of intermediary stratum, which in return created demand for a political party such as the Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, JDP) in 2002. It also adds institutional factors to the discussion and demonstrates how the JDP reshuffled itself as a mainstream party rather than an Islamist one.

References

  1. A&G Araştırma (A&G Research). (2002). A&G Araştırma Ekim 2002 (A&G Research October 2002). A&G Araştırma Şirketi (A&G Research Company). [through special request].Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, F. (1977). The Turkish Experiment in Democracy, 1950–1975. London: C. Hurst for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad, F. (1985). The Transition to Democracy in Turkey. Third World Quarterly, 7(2), 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad, F. (1993). The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Alford, R. R. (1964). Party and Society: The Anglo-American Democracies. Westport: Murray.Google Scholar
  6. Alper, E. C. (2001). The Turkish Liquidity Crisis of 2000: What Went Wrong. Russian & East European Finance and Trade, 37(6), 58–80.Google Scholar
  7. Altunışık, M. B., & Tür, Ö. (2005). Turkey: Challenges of Continuity and Change, The Contemporary Middle East. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. ANAP. (1987). Anavatan Partisi 29 Kasım 1987 Seçim Beyannamesi, [online]. Available at: https://acikerisim.tbmm.gov.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11543/664/198801695.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed 20 Mar 2018.
  9. Arslan, I., & van Wijnbergen, S. (1993). Export Incentives, Exchange Rate Policy and Export Growth in Turkey. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 75(1), 128–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atacan, F. (2005). Explaining Religious Politics at the Crossroad: AKP-SP. Turkish Studies, 6(2), 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ayata, A. G. (2002). The Republican’s People Party. In R. Barry & M. Heper (Eds.), Political Parties in Turkey (pp. 102–122). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Bakırezer, G., & ve Demirer, Y. (2009). AKP’nin Sosyal Siyaseti (AKP’s Social Policy). In İ. Uzgel & B. Duru (Eds.), AKP Kitabı: Bir Dönüşümün Bilançosu (A Book on the AKP: The Balance Sheet of a Transformation) (pp. 153–179). Ankara: Phoenixkitap.Google Scholar
  13. Boratav, K. (2005). Türkiye İktisat Tarihi. Ankara: İmge Kitabevi Yayınları.Google Scholar
  14. Buğra, A. (2010). Devlet ve İşadamları (State and Businessmen in Modern Turkey). İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.Google Scholar
  15. Butler, D. E., & Stokes, D. (1974). Political Change in Britain (revised ed.). London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Çavdar, T. (2008a). Türkiye’nin Demokrasi Tarihi 1839–1950 (Turkey’s History of Democracy 1839–1950). Ankara: İmge Kitapevi.Google Scholar
  17. Çavdar, T. (2008b). Türkiye’nin Demokrasi Tarihi 1950’den Günümüze (Turkey’s History of Democracy from 1950 to the Present). Ankara: İmge Kitapevi.Google Scholar
  18. Cebeci, G. (2015). 27 Mayıs neden oldu. Odatv. 27th May 2015, [online]. Available at: http://odatv.com/27-mayis-neden-oldu-2705151200.htm. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  19. Cıngı, M., 2015. 1991–1994 Seçimleri, [online]. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/mstfcng/19911994-seimleri. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  20. Cizre-Sakallıoğlu, Ü. (1996). Liberalism, Democracy and the Turkish Centre-right: The Identity Crisis of the True Path Party. Middle Eastern Studies, 32(2), 142–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crewe, I. (1983). The Electorate: Partisan Dealignment Ten Years On. West European Politics, 6(4), 183–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Delibas, K. (2015). The Rise of Political Islam in Turkey: Urban Poverty, Grassroots Activism and Islamic Fundamentalism. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  23. Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  24. Ertuğrul, A., & Selçuk, F. (2001). A Brief Account of the Turkish Economy: 1980–2000. Russian and East European Finance and Trade, 37(6), 6–30.Google Scholar
  25. Gibson, M. L., & Ward, M. D. (1992). Export Orientation: Pathway or Artifact? International Studies Quarterly, 36(3), 331–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gülalp, H. (2001). Globalization and Political Islam: The Social Bases of Turkey’s Welfare Party. Journal of Middle East Studies, 33(3), 433–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gumuscu, S. (2010). Class, Status, and Party: The Changing Face of Political Islam in Turkey and Egypt. Comparative Political Studies, 30, 1–27.Google Scholar
  28. Gumuscu, S., & Sert, D. (2009). The Power of the Devout Bourgeoisie: The Case of the Justice and Development Party in Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies, 45(6), 953–968.Google Scholar
  29. Hale, W., & Özbudun, E. (2010). Islamism, Democracy and Liberalism in Turkey: The Case of the AKP. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  31. Haynes, J. (1998). Religion in Global Politics. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  32. Heath, A. F., Jowell, R., & Curtice, J. (1985). How Britain Votes. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  33. Hodges, D. C. (1961). The Intermediate Classes in Marxian Theory. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 28(1), 23–36.Google Scholar
  34. ILO Labour Statistics Bureau. (2012). International Labour Organization Geneva LABORSTA Labour Statistics Database. Accessed 25 Aug 2012.Google Scholar
  35. Insel, A. (2003). The AKP and Normalizing Democracy in Turkey. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 102(2/3), 293–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kahraman, H. (2008). Türk Siyasetinin Yapısal Analizi-I Kavramlar Kuramlar Kurumlar (Structural Analysis of Turkish Politics-I Concepts Theories Institutions). İstanbul: Agora Kitaplığı.Google Scholar
  37. Karpat, K. (1959). Turkey’s Politics, The Transition to a Multi-Party System. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Kıbrıs, A. (2011). Funerals and Elections: The Effects of Terrorism on Voting Behavior in Turkey. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(2), 220–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kıran, J. (2017). Expanding the Framework of the Varieties of Capitalism: Turkey as a Hierarchical Market Economy. Journal of Eurasian Studies, 9(1), 42–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koç, Y. (2010). Türkiye İşçi Sınıfı Tarihi Osmanlı’dan 2010’a (History of Working Class of Turkey from Ottoman Period till 2010). Ankara: Epos Yayınları.Google Scholar
  41. Koç, İ., Eryurt, M.A., Adalı, T. & Seçkiner, P. (2008). Türkiye’nin Demografik Dönüşümü. [pdf] Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etüdleri Enstitüsü. Available at: http://www.hips.hacettepe.edu.tr/TurkiyeninDemografikDonusumu_220410.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  42. Kongar, E. (2011). 21.Yüzyılda Türkiye 2000’li Yıllarda Türkiye’nin Toplumsal Yapısı (Turkey at 21st Century Turkey’s Societal Structure in the 2000s). İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.Google Scholar
  43. Kurban, D., Yükseker, D., Çelik, A.B., Ünalan, T., & Aker, A.T. (2007). Coming to Terms with Forced Migration: Post-displacement Restitution of Citizenship Rights in Turkey. [pdf] TESEV. Available at: http://tesev.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Coming_To_Terms_With_Forced_Migration_Post-Displacement_Restitution_Of_Citizenship_Rights_In_Turkey.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  44. Lipset, S. (1960). Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  45. Lipset, S. M., & Rokkan, S. (1967). Cleavage Structures, Party System, and Voter Alignments: An introduction. In S. M. Lipset & S. Rokkan (Eds.), Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives (pp. 1–64). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  46. Mahmood, S. (2005). Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Margulies, R., & Yildizoglu, E. (1984). Trade Unions and Turkey’s Working Class. MERIP Reports, (121), 15–31.  Google Scholar
  48. Mehmet, O. (1998). Islamic Identity and Development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Mert, N. (2007). Merkez Sağın Kısa Tarihi (Short History of Centre-Right). İstanbul: Selis Yayınları.Google Scholar
  50. MÜSİAD. (2009). Hizmet Sektörü Raporu. MÜSİAD Araştırma Raporları, [online]. Available at: http://www.musiad.org.tr/F/Root/burcu2014/Araştırmalar%20Yayın/Pdf/Sektör%20Kurulları/Hizmet_Sektor_Raporu_2009.pdf. Accessed 28 Apr 2018.
  51. Önder, N. (2016). The Economic Transformation of Turkey Neoliberalism and State Intervention. London/New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  52. Öniş, Z. (1997). The Political Economy of Islamic Resurgence in Turkey: The Rise of the Welfare Party in Perspective. Third World Quarterly, 18, 743–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Öniş, Z. (2010). Adalet Kalkınma Parti’sinin Ekonomi-Politiği (Political Economy of the AKP). In H. Yavuz (Ed.), AK Parti Toplumsal Değişimin Yeni Aktörleri (AKP New Actors of Social Change) (pp. 259–287). İstanbul: Kitap yayınevi.Google Scholar
  54. Özbudun, E. (2000). Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. Özcan, G. B., & Turunç, H. (2011). Economic Liberalization and Class Dynamics in Turkey: New Business Groups and Islamic Mobilization. Insight Turkey, 13(3), 63–86.Google Scholar
  56. Özen, H. (2013). Informal Politics in Turkey During the Özal Era (1983–1989). Turkish Journal of International Relations, 12(4), 77–91.Google Scholar
  57. Pamuk, Ş. (2009). Osmanlıdan Cumhuriyete Küreselleşme, İktisat Politikaları ve Büyüme (From Ottoman Empire to Republic Globalization, Economic Policies and Growth). İstanbul: İşbankası Kültür Yayınları.Google Scholar
  58. Sağlam, S. (2006). Türkiye’de İç Göç Olgusu ve Kentleşme (A Case of Internal Migration and Urbanization in Turkey). Türkiyat Araştırmaları, [online]. Available at: http://turkoloji.cu.edu.tr/GENEL/serdar_saglam_turkiyede_ic_goc_olgusu_kentlesme.pdf. Accessed 29 Apr 2018.
  59. Şahin, G. (2016). 1983 Seçimlerine Katılan Siyasi Partilerin Askeri Yönetim Sonrası Türkiyesi’ne İlişkin Söylemleri. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Derneği (The Journal of Social Sciences Institute), pp. 283–306, [online]. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312205979. Accessed 29 Apr 2018
  60. Saraçoğlu, R. (1994). Liberalization of the Economy. In M. Heper & A. Evin (Eds.), Politics in the Third Turkish Republic (pp. 63–75). Boulder/Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  61. Şenyapılı, T. (1981). Gecekondu: Çevre İşçilerin Mekanı. Ankara: ODTÜ.Google Scholar
  62. Sunar, İ. (2004). Populism and Patronage: The Demokrat Party and its Legacy in Turkey. In İ. Sunar (Ed.), State, Society and Democracy in Turkey (pp. 122–131). İstanbul: Bahçeşehir University Publication.Google Scholar
  63. Tanrivermis, H., & Bulbul, M. (2007). The Role of Agriculture in Turkish Economy at the Beginning of the European Union Accession Negotiations. Journal of Applied Sciences, 7, 612–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Taş, M. (2004). Menderes Döneminin Ekonomi Politiği ve 1958 İstikrar Programı. Mevzuat Dergisi. no.76, April, [online]. Available at: http://www.mevzuatdergisi.com/2004/04a/02.htm. Accessed 28 Apr 2018.
  65. Teazis, C. (2011). İkincilerin Cumhuriyeti (Second Republicanists). İstanbul: Mızrak Yayınları.Google Scholar
  66. TUIK. (2010). İstatistik Göstergeler 1923–2010 (Statistical Indicators 1923–2010). Ankara: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (Turkish Statistical Institute).Google Scholar
  67. TUIK. (2017a). Gross Domestic Product, 1923–1997 (In Purchasers’ Value). Ankara, Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (Turkish Statistical Institute).Google Scholar
  68. TUIK. (2017b). İşgücü Statistikleri 1988–2017 (Labour Force Statistics 1988–2017). Ankara, Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (Turkish Statistical Institute).Google Scholar
  69. TUIK. (2018). Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri 2002–2018 (Export Statistics). Ankara: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (Turkish Statistical Institute).Google Scholar
  70. White, J. B. (2002). Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  71. Yagci, A. H. (2017). The Political Economy of Coups d’etat: A General Survey and a Local Theory for Turkey. Turkish Studies, 19(1), 72–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yalpat, A. (1984). Turkey’s Economy under the Generals. MERIP Reports, (122),16–24.Google Scholar
  73. Yenal, O. (2010). Cumhuriyet’in İktisat Tarihi (Economic History of the Republic). İstanbul: İşbankası Kültür Yayınları.Google Scholar
  74. YSK. (2011). 1983–2007 Yılları arası Seçim Çevrelerine göre Seçim Sonuçları. Available at: http://www.ysk.gov.tr/tr/1983-2007-yillari-arasi-milletvekili-genel-secimleri/3008. Accessed 28 Nov 2018.
  75. Zürcher, E. J. (2017). Turkey: A Modern History (Vol. Fourth edition). London/New York: I.B. Tauris. (Digital Version). Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sevinç Bermek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Middle Eastern StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations