Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Neuromodulation Devices in the Treatment of Headaches: Focus on Non-invasive Therapies

  • Ho Tin Wong
  • Fayyaz AhmedEmail author
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)


Primary headaches are a common indication for review in neurology clinics. Migraines, tension-type headaches and trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgia (TAC) are the most common primary headache disorders. Migraines can cause significant functional disability and cluster headaches (the commonest TAC) are one of the worst pains known to mankind. Pharmacological treatment has been the standard for both abortive and prophylactic intervention for many years, but there are patients who are refractory to medical therapy and there are others who cannot take such medications because of co-morbidities or cannot tolerate the side effects.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosciencesHull York Medical SchoolHullUK

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