Neuromodulation in Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia and Painful Trigeminal Neuropathy

  • Turo Nurmikko
  • Mark ObermannEmail author
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)


As discussed elsewhere in this book, there are several pharmacological and surgical treatments available for trigeminal neuralgia from which the majority of patients may expect substantial benefit. Neuromodulation methods are therefore usually considered as third- or fourth-line treatment options and limited to refractory and atypical cases. In contrast, management of painful trigeminal neuropathy is notoriously difficult and, importantly, unresponsive to surgical interventions known to be effective in trigeminal neuralgia. Neuromodulation offers an alternative worth considering for patients whose neuropathy pain is refractory to pharmacotherapy. In this chapter, we will discuss both central and peripheral neuromodulatory treatments that show promise, although the evidence base still remains narrow.


Peripheral neuromodulation Central neuromodulation Trigeminal neuralgia Trigeminal neuropathy Ganglion stimulation TMS tDCS 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuroscience Research UnitThe Walton Centre NHS Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Center for Neurology, Asklepios Hospital SeesenSeesenGermany
  3. 3.West German Headache CenterUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

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