Medial Canthal Defect: Reconstructive Options

  • Chau Pham
  • Peter W. MacIntosh
  • Aaron Fay


Medial canthal defects range from congenital problems such as telecanthus and epicanthal folds to large defects resulting from trauma and tumor resection. The medial canthus is a small, yet complex, area that represents the confluence of several anatomic units that affect the structure and function of the ocular and lacrimal apparatus. As a result, the reconstruction of this area requires special attention and skill. The following chapter will provide a focused review of the relevant anatomy and a broad overview of the clinical entities specific to the medial canthus and offer approaches to management of more commonly encountered defects.


Medial canthal reconstruction Medial canthus Telecanthus Epicanthus Epicanthal fold Epicanthoplasty Canthal tendon Mohs micrographical surgery Paramedian pedicle flap 





Botulinum toxin A


Computed tomography


Magnetic resonance imaging


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chau Pham
    • 1
  • Peter W. MacIntosh
    • 1
  • Aaron Fay
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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