Comparing Cellphones, Global Positioning Systems (GPSs), Email and Network and Cyber-Forensics

  • Hossein ZareEmail author
  • Peter Olsen
  • Mohammad J. Zare
  • Mojgan Azadi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 800)


Evidence collection of digital devices is the most important step of Forensic Investigation. We discuss four major evidence’s sources focusing on Cellphones, Global Positioning Systems (GPSs), Email and Network. Cellphone provides tremendous evidence, but it needs to be isolated to protect risk of being wiped up and overwritten. GPSs are valuable sources of information and can guide an investigator to identify “where the unit has been and where a user intended to go”. Network and Emails are the most powerful sources of evidence, but professional skills are needed to protect evidence from being overwritten and modified. In this paper using the CIA’s model, we prioritize these four sources of evidence. Network and email with 0.82 and 0.72 availability ratio received the highest availability score but with considering data integrity Cellphone and GPSs received the highest score and can be considered more reliable source of evidence during a Forensic Investigation.


Forensic investigation Cellphone GPS Risk assessment analysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Zare
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Peter Olsen
    • 3
  • Mohammad J. Zare
    • 4
  • Mojgan Azadi
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Health Services ManagementUniversity of Maryland University College (UMUC)AdelphiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health Policy and ManagementThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountyBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringAzad UniversityYazdIran
  5. 5.University of Maryland University CollegeAdelphiUSA
  6. 6.The Johns Hopkins University School of NursingBaltimoreUSA

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