A Review of Micropollutant Removal by Microalgae

  • Sikandar I. Mulla
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
  • Dalel Belhaj
  • Fuad Ameen
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
  • Sanjay Kumar Gupta
  • Swati Tyagi
  • Kishor Sureshbhai Patil
  • Anyi Hu


Various types of medicines, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and quinolone antibiotics, have been used to treat infections caused by microorganisms. Consequently, most of these medicines, undigested, and with their metabolic intermediates, are released through excretion into the ecosystem. In addition, hormones, especially steroid hormones, are observed in the ecosystem, which because of their long-term persistence (even at trace levels) in the environmental surroundings might pose a risk to living systems. Hence, various research groups have studied the fate of such contaminants. To avoid the high risk of micropollutants, various remediation techniques have been proposed to remove such contaminants from the environment. One of these methods is removal of the contaminant(s) by microalgae. In this book chapter, we briefly summarize the occurrence of some of these microcontaminants in the ecosystem and their detoxification as well as elimination by microalgae (alone or combination with other processes), as reported in the published literature.


Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs Quinolone antibiotics Occurrence Removal Microalgae 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sikandar I. Mulla
    • 1
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 2
  • Dalel Belhaj
    • 3
  • Fuad Ameen
    • 4
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
    • 5
  • Sanjay Kumar Gupta
    • 6
  • Swati Tyagi
    • 7
  • Kishor Sureshbhai Patil
    • 7
  • Anyi Hu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of SciencesXiamenChina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Bioremediation and Metagenomics Research (LBMR), Department of Microbiology (DM)Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  3. 3.University of Sfax-Tunisia, FSS, Department of Life Sciences, Laboratory of Biodiversity and Aquatic Ecosystems Ecology and PlanktonologySfaxTunisia
  4. 4.Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Food Science and BiotechnologyDongguk University-SeoulIlsandong-guRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology – DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  7. 7.Division of BiotechnologyChonbuk National UniversityIksanRepublic of Korea

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