Comprehensive Evaluation of High-Rate Algal Ponds: Wastewater Treatment and Biomass Production

  • Shashi Ranjan
  • Pankaj Kumar Gupta
  • Sanjay Kumar Gupta


Microalgae have received increasingly global attention as a renewable, alternative, and sustainable source for the production of biodiesel and concurrent treatment of wastewater in response to waste and energy crisis. High-rate algal ponds (HRAPs) are effective technique to remove several pollutants and nutrients from wastewater and to generate heavy biomass. This perspective chapter first briefly discusses the design and mechanisms of pollutant removal from wastewater in HRAPs. A comparative account is presented thereafter which highlighted the factors affecting the production of biomass in HRAPs and removal of pollutants from wastewater. Subsequently, economic and environmental aspects are discussed to assess the sustainability of HRAPs. Finally, strategies for the further improvements for enhanced treatment and biomass production for biodiesel have been proposed and discussed, in an attempt to reduce the cost gap for biodiesel commercialization. The knowledge and literature presented here may help to design and improve HRAPs wastewater treatment and biomass production.


High-rate algal pond Wastewater treatment Biomass production Environmental sustainability 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shashi Ranjan
    • 1
  • Pankaj Kumar Gupta
    • 1
  • Sanjay Kumar Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of HydrologyIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology – DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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