Astaxanthin Production by Microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis Through Wastewater Treatment: Waste to Resource

  • Md Mahfuzur Rahman Shah


Green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis produces a keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high antioxidant activity during induction of vegetative cells to cyst cells. Astaxanthin plays an important role in the food, cosmetics, nutraceutical, and aquaculture industries. Wastewater provides water and necessary nutrients for algae cultivation. Microalgae can be used as an economical and feasible way of wastewater treatment coupling with the concurrent creation of high-value products. Microalgae show higher efficiency in nutrient removal than other microorganisms because the nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, urea and trace elements) present in various wastewaters are essential for microalgal growth. Although there are a substantial number of researches available on the utilization of various microalgae species for wastewater treatment and nutrient removal, wastewater treatment and astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis are less investigated. This chapter describes the current knowledge about microalga H. pluvialis-derived astaxanthin, its application and market potential, and culture conditions and nutritional requirements of this microalgal cell growth and astaxanthin formation. The potentiality of microalgae cultivation using various wastewater and integration of H. pluvialis culture in different wastewater streams and nutrient removal and biomass production efficiency are also discussed. Furthermore, the challenges associated with growing H. pluvialis in wastewaters and possible ways to overcome such challenges have been highlighted.


Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Keto-carotenoid Astaxanthin Nutraceutical 



The author would like to acknowledge overall support provided by his parents and family.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md Mahfuzur Rahman Shah
    • 1
  1. 1.Excel Career CollegeCourtenayCanada

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