Advertisement

The Cyprus Tribute in Times of Tumult: From Ottoman Suzerainty to British Colonial Rule, 1900–1925

  • Diana Markides
Chapter

Abstract

Cyprus emerged relatively unscathed from the regional turbulence in the early decades of the twentieth century. The Levant as a whole underwent seismic changes as nationalism corroded the old loyalties and institutions that held the Ottoman Empire together leading on to regional strife, and eventually world war. Although Cyprus changed status, being annexed by Britain during the First World War, there was no substantial change in the way it was governed. After November 1914, as a British dependency, it was protected from the bloodshed and expulsions that had been the lot of so many populations in the region. This chapter will explore these developments and their lesser, or greater impact on Cyprus, through the prism of the tribute issue. Both religious communities on the island would be most immediately aware of and reacting to the fluctuating nature of Greek irredentist politics at the beginning of the twentieth century, particularly as they evolved on the neighbouring island of Crete. The Muslim Cypriots looked upon developments in Crete with increasing alarm, later magnified by the Italian occupation of the Dodecanese in 1912, the retreat of Turkey from the Balkans and finally the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, brought about by the subsequent world war.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

  1. National Archive, Kew Google Scholar
  2. Colonial Office Papers (CO)Google Scholar
  3. Foreign Office Papers (FO)Google Scholar
  4. Treasury: Treasury Board Papers and in_Letters (T1)Google Scholar
  5. State Archive of the Republic of Cyprus (CSA) Google Scholar
  6. Secretariat Archive Minute Papers (SA)Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Apostolides, A. 2013. Copper and Foreign Investment: The Development of the Mining Industry in Cyprus During the Great Depression. In Greek Research in Australia: Proceedings of the Biennial International Conference of Greek Studies, ed. M. Tsianikas, N. Maadad, G. Couvalis, and M. Palaktsoglou. Flinders University. Last accessed June 2011.Google Scholar
  2. Chacalli, George. 1902. Cyprus Under British Rule. Nicosia: Phoni tis Kyprou.Google Scholar
  3. Constantine, Stephen. 1984. The Making of British Colonial Development Policy, 1914–1940. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Dyson, Kenneth. 2014. State, Debt and Power: Saints and Sinners in European History and Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ferguson, Niall. 2000. The House of Rothschild: The World’s Banker 1849–1999. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  6. Georghallides, G.S. 1979. A Political and Administrative History of Cyprus, 1918–1926. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 1996. Churchill’s 1907 Visit to Cyprus: A Political Analysis. In Επιτιριδα, vol. III. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre.Google Scholar
  8. Heraclidou, Antigone. 2014. Cyprus’s Non-military Contribution to the Allied War Effort during World War I. The Round Table 193 (2): 193–200.Google Scholar
  9. Hill, George. 1952. A History of Cyprus, vol. IV, The Ottoman Province, The British Colony, 1571–1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hook, Gail Dallas. 2015. Protectorate Cyprus: British Imperial Power Before World War I. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  11. Holland, R.F., and D. Markides. 2006. The British and The Hellenes: Struggles for Mastery in the Eastern Mediterranean 1850–1960. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Innes, Mary. 1986. In Egyptian Service: The role of British Officials in Egypt 1911–1936. Unpublished PhD thesis, St. Antony’s College, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Jenness, Diamond. 1962. The Economics of Cyprus: A Survey to 1914. Montreal: McGill University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kesner, R.M. 1981. Economic Control and Colonial Development: Crown Colony Financial Management in the Age of Joseph Chamberlain. London: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  15. Lewis, Bernard. 2002. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Markides, Diana. 2008. Vretaniki ‘Venizelophilia ke Venizeliki Anglophilia stin periptosi tis Kyprou, 1906–1931’. In O Venizelos kai i Kypros, ed. George Kazamias and Petros Papapolyviou. Kastanioti: Athens.Google Scholar
  17. ———.2014. Sendall in Cyprus: A Governor in Bondage. Nicosia: Moufflon.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2016. Bailed in: Strategic Financial Manoeuvring Behind the British Acquisition of Cyprus. In Between Empires and Nations: the Greeks and the British in the Levant 1800–1960s, ed. Anastasia Yiangou, George Kazamias, and Robert Holland. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Marlow, John. 1965. A History of Modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Relations, 1800–1956. London: Archon.Google Scholar
  20. Morison, Theodore, and George Hutchinson. 1911. The Life of Sir Edward FitzGerald Law, Edinburgh, London. London: Blackwood.Google Scholar
  21. Nevzet, Altay. 2005. Nationalism Amongst the Turks of Cyprus: The First Wave. Oulu: Oulu University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Orr, C.W.J. 1972. Cyprus Under British Rule. London: Zeno Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Panayiotou, Maria. 2016. Λιμάνια, λιμενικά έργα και εξωτερικό εμπόριο στην Κύπρο, 1878–1927 (Ports, port works and foreign trade in Cyprus 1878–1927), PhD thesis, University of Cyprus.Google Scholar
  24. Petros Papapolyviou. 1997. I Kypros ke i Valkaniki Polemi: Symvoli stin istoria tuo Kypriakou Ethelontismou. Nicosia.Google Scholar
  25. Roberts, Richard. 2013. Saving the City: The Great Financial Crisis of 1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 8 ‘Heroic Interventions’.Google Scholar
  26. Robinson R., and J. Gallagher, 1961. Africa and the Victorians. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  27. Stewart, Basil. 1908. My Experiences of Cyprus. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Tunçer, Ali Coşkun. 2015. Sovereign Debt and International Financial Control: The Middle East and the Balkans 1870–1914. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. Wynne, W. 1951. State Insolvency and Foreign Bondholders: Selected Case Histories of Governmental Foreign Bond Defaults and Debt Readjustments. USA: Beard Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Markides
    • 1
  1. 1.NicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations