Advertisement

The 1999 Kosovo Intervention

  • Julie GareyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in International Relations book series (PSIR)

Abstract

This chapter details the circumstances leading to the 1999 intervention in Kosovo. The military and political outcomes of Operation Deliberate Force during the 1992–1995 war in Bosnia set a precedent for the 1999 Kosovo intervention, which is divided into three phases in this chapter. The pre-war phase began with the Drenica massacres in February and March 1998. The conflict phase captures the period from March 24, 1999, to June 10, 1999, which were the dates of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Operation Allied Force (OAF). Finally, I analyze the post-conflict phase, including the stabilization and reconstruction effort known as Kosovo Force (KFOR). The United States pursued NATO participation in Kosovo for political, military, and legal reasons. As OAF operations progressed, policymakers used American leadership in Kosovo to pressure the allies to improve their military capabilities and alliance contributions. Because the UN Security Council failed to pass a resolution authorizing a direct intervention, the United States and its European allies sought legitimization through alternative channels, including NATO. Executing the operation through the NATO alliance conferred retrospective legitimacy on the intervention—in the years following, Kosovo operations were deemed by much of the international community to be “illegal but legitimate.”

References

  1. Allin, Dana H. 2002. NATO’s Balkan Interventions. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. BBC News. Timeline: Breakup of Yugoslavia. Last Modified May 22, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4997380.stm. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  3. Bjola, Corneliu. 2009. Legitimising the Use of Force in International Politics, Contemporary Security Studies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Buchanan, Allen. 2010. Human Rights, Legitimacy, and the Use of Force. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cimbala, Stephen J., and Peter Forster. 2005. The US, NATO and Military Burden-Sharing, Cass Contemporary Security Studies Series. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clinton, William J. Address to the Nation on Airstrikes Against Serbian Targets in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Last Modified Mar 24, 1999. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=57305. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  7. CNN. G-8 Ministers Draft Kosovo Peace Formula. Last Modified May 6, 1999. http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/europe/9905/06/kosovo.03/. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  8. Cohen, Roger. 1994. U.S. Clashes with Russia Over Bosnia. The New York Times, May 18. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/05/18/world/us-clashes-with-russia-over-bosnia.html
  9. Cohen, William S., and Shelton, Henry H. Joint Statement on the Kosovo After Action Review. Last Modified Oct 14, 1999. www.au.af.mil/au/awc/aecgate/kosovoaa/jointstmt.htm. Accessed 7 Feb 2015.
  10. Daalder, Ivo H. 1998. Decision to Intervene: How the War in Bosnia Ended. Foreign Service Journal 73 (12): 24–31.Google Scholar
  11. Daalder, Ivo H., and Michael E. O’Hanlon. 2000. Winning Ugly: NATO’s War to Save Kosovo. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  12. Davidson, Jason. 2011. America’s Allies and War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deighton, Anne. 2000. The European Union and NATO’s War Over Kosovo: Toward the Glass Ceiling? In Alliance Politics, Kosovo, and NATO’s War: Allied Force or Forced Allies? ed. Pierre Martin and Mark R. Brawley. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  14. Donfried, Karen. 1999. Kosovo: International Reactions to NATO Air Strikes. CRS Report for Congress, April 21. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  15. Dunn, David. 2009. Innovation and Precedent in the Kosovo War: The Impact of Operation Allied Force on US Foreign Policy. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944–) 85 (3): 531.Google Scholar
  16. Hendrickson, Ryan C. 2000. The Constraint of Legitimacy: The Legal and Institutional Framework of Euro-Atlantic Security. In Alliance Politics, Kosovo, and NATO’s War: Allied Force or Forced Allies? ed. Pierre Martin and Mark R. Brawley. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2005. Crossing the Rubicon. NATO Review, Autumn. http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2005/issue3/english/history_pr.html
  18. Human Rights Watch. 2014. The Crisis in Kosovo. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/nato/Natbm200-01.htm. Accessed 7 Sept 2014.
  19. Independent International Commission on Kosovo. 2000. The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaplan, Lawrence S. 2004. NATO Divided, NATO United. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  21. Karadis, Mike. 2000. Bosnia, Kosova, and the West. Sydney: Resistance Books.Google Scholar
  22. Kupchan, Charles A. 2000. Kosovo and the Future of U.S. Engagement in Europe: Continued Hegemony or Impending Retrenchment? In Alliance Politics, Kosovo, and NATO’s War: Allied Force or Forced Allies? ed. Pierre Martin and Mark R. Brawley. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  23. Lambeth, Benjamin S. 2001. NATO’s Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment. Santa Monica: Rand.Google Scholar
  24. Latawski, Paul C., and Martin A. Smith. 2003. The Kosovo Crisis and the Evolution of Post-Cold War European Security. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Macleod, Alex. 2000. France: Kosovo and the Emergence of a New European Security. In Alliance Politics, Kosovo, and NATO’s War: Allied Force or Forced Allies? ed. Pierre Martin and Mark R. Brawley. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  26. Menon, Andrew. 2006. From Out of Adversity: Kosovo, Iraq, and EDSP. In The Transatlantic Divide: Foreign and Security Policies in the Atlantic Alliance from Kosovo to Iraq, ed. Osvaldo Croci and Amy Verdun. New York: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  27. NATO. Statement by the Secretary General Following the ACTWARN Decision. Last Modified Sept 24, 1998. www.nato.int/docu/pr/1998/p980924e.htm
  28. ———. Defence Capabilities Initiative (DCI). Last Modified Dec 2, 1999. www.nato.int/docu/comm/1999/9912-hq/fs-dci99.htm. Accessed 11 Nov 2014.
  29. ———. Peace Support Operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Last Modified Nov 11, 2014. http://nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_52122.htm?selectedLocale=en. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  30. ———. Kosovo Force: Key Facts and Figures. Last Modified Feb 1, 2015a. http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_2013_12/131201-kfor-placemat-final.pdf. Accessed 5 Apr 2015.
  31. ———. NATO’s Role in Kosovo. Last Modified Jan 6, 2015b. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_48818.htm#. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  32. Norris, John. 2005. Collision Course: NATO, Russia and Kosovo. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  33. Owen, Robert C. 2001. Operation Deliberate Force: A Case Study on Humanitarian Constraints in Aerospace Warfare. Paper Presented at Humanitarian Challenges in Military Intervention Workshop, November 29–30.Google Scholar
  34. PBS. 2018. A Kosovo Chronology. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kosovo/etc/cron.html. Accessed 26 Aug 2018.
  35. PBS Frontline. 2015. War in Europe: Facts and Figures. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kosovo/etc/facts.html. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  36. Pew Research Center. Continued Public Support for Kosovo, but Worries Grow. Last Modified Apr 21, 1999a. http://www.people-press.org/1999/04/21/continued-public-support-for-kosovo-but-worries-grow/. Accessed 5 Apr 2015.
  37. ———. Support for NATO Air Strikes with Plenty of Buts. Last Modified Mar 29, 1999b. http://www.people-press.org/1999/03/29/support-for-nato-air-strikes-with-plenty-of-buts/.
  38. Program on International Policy Attitudes. Americans on Kosovo: A Study of US Public Attitudes. Last Modified May 27, 1999. http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/Kosovo/Kosovo_May99/Kosovo_May99_rpt.pdf. Accessed 5 Apr 2015.
  39. Reuters. What Happened During the War in Bosnia? Last Modified July 21, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/07/21/idUSL21644464
  40. Rice, Susan E., and Andrew Loomis. 2007. Evolution of Humanitarian Intervention. In Beyond Preemption: Force and Legitimacy in a Changing World, ed. Ivo Daalder. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  41. Riding, Alan. Conflict in the Balkans; Mitterand Will Send Troops Only to Protect Bosnia Relief. Last Modified Aug 14, 1992. https://www.nytimes.com/1992/08/14/world/conflict-balkans-mitterrand-will-send-troops-only-protect-bosnia-relief.html. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  42. Smith, Mark. 2009. The Kosovo Conflict: U.S. Diplomacy and Western Public Opinion. Los Angeles: Figueroa Press.Google Scholar
  43. The International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect. Paragraphs 138–139 of the World Summit Outcome Document. Last Modified Mar 1, 2015. http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/component/content/article/35-r2pcs-topics/398-general-assembly-r2p-excerpt-from-outcome-document
  44. The New York Times. 1999. Crisis in the Balkans: Statements on the United States’ Policy on Kosovo. The New York Times, April 18.Google Scholar
  45. U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. The War in Bosnia, 1992–1995. Last Modified Oct 21, 2013. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1993-2000/bosnia. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  46. ———. 2015a. Bill Clinton, Boris Yeltsin, and U.S.-Russian Relations. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1993-2000/clinton-yeltsin. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  47. ———. 2015b. The Breakup of Yugoslavia. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/breakup-yugoslavia. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  48. ———. 2015c. United States Relations with Russia: After the Cold War. http://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/pubs/fs/85962.htm. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  49. U.S. House of Representatives. 1999. A Concurrent Resolution Authorizing the President of the United States to Conduct Military Air Operations and Missile Strikes Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 106th Congress Session.Google Scholar
  50. United Nations Department of Public Information. United Nations Protection Force. Last Modified Sept 1, 1996. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unprof_b.htm. Accessed 1 Mar 2015.
  51. United Nations Security Council. UNSCR 753 Admission of a New Member: Croatia, May 18, 1992.Google Scholar
  52. ———. UNSCR 1160 on the Letters from the United Kingdom (S/1998/223) and the United States (S/1998/272), Mar 31, 1998a.Google Scholar
  53. ———. UNSCR 1199 Kosovo (FRY), Sept 23, 1998b.Google Scholar
  54. ———. UNSCR 1244 On the Situation Relating Kosovo, June 10, 1999.Google Scholar
  55. Wallack, Michael. 2006. From Compellence to Pre-Emption: Kosovo and Iraq as Responses to Contested Hegemony. In The Transatlantic Divide: Foreign and Security Policies in the Atlantic Alliance from Kosovo to Iraq, ed. Osvaldo Croci and Amy Verdun. New York: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Weitsman, Patricia. 2014. Waging War: Alliances, Coalitions, and Institutions of Interstate Violence. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Weller, Marc. 1999. The Rambouillet Conference on Kosovo. International Affairs 75 (2): 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Williams, Michael J. 2008. NATO, Security, and Risk Management. Milton Park: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wintz, Mark. 2010. Transatlantic Diplomacy and the Use of Military Force in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations