Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  • BBSG – Brazilian Breast Study Group


Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is defined as the rapid onset erythema and cutaneous edema, “orange peel” (or peau d’orange). It is a more aggressive disease when compared to locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), encompassing almost double mortality rates, even accordingly to adjusted risk factors.


Inflammatory breast cancer  Breast reconstruction  Radical mastectomy  Neoadjuvant chemotherapy  Radiation therapy 

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Fouad TM, Barrera AMG, et al. Inflammatory breast cancer: a proposed conceptual shift in the UICC–AJCC TNM staging system. Lancet Oncol. 2017;18(4):e228–32. It suggests a new classification for clinical stage IV by UICC-AJCC, dividing into non-inflammatory metastatic and inflammatory metastatic, due to the worse prognosis of inflammatory carcinoma. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haaggensen C. Inflammatory carcinoma. In: Disease of the breast. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1971. p. 576–84. Classical definition of inflammatory carcinoma, stipulating the clinical conditions required to confirm the diagnosis. Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu J, et al. Chemotherapy response and survival of inflammatory breast cancer by hormone receptor- and HER2-defined molecular subtypes approximation: an analysis from the National Cancer Database. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017;143(1):161–8. Differently than the non-inflammatory carcinoma, the presence of positive hormone receptors does not improve the prognosis when compared to other molecular biology subtypes. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakhlis F, et al. The impact of residual disease after preoperative systemic therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with inflammatory breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017; The clinical response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is the most important prognostic factor in Her2 positive and triple negative patients. The presence of carcinoma in situ after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy does not alter the prognosis of the disease. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simpson AB, et al. Immediate reconstruction in inflammatory breast cancer: challenging current care. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23(Suppl 5):642–8. Immediate reconstruction is not related to prognosis limitations. The occurrence of operative complications may delay the adjuvant treatment. Patients with complete clinical response may be candidates for immediate reconstruction. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • BBSG – Brazilian Breast Study Group
    • 1
  1. 1.BBSGSao PauloBrazil

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