Aesthetic Breast Surgery

  • Mónica Adriana Rodriguéz Martinéz
  • An Wan Ching
  • Antônio Luiz Frasson


The characteristics and appearance of the ideal breast are subjective in many aspects and vary between different societies and cultures. Size, position, contour, symmetry, and proportionality of both the breast shape and the nipple and areola complex (NAC) are important elements in the aesthetic evaluation. However, in addition to the visual impact, sensitivity, mobility, and texture must also be preserved. Breast aesthetic surgery seeks to improve the characteristics of the breast, trying to associate the ideal appearance with the satisfaction of the patient. Despite being considered by some as a surgery of the ends (in terms of satisfiyng the patients and medical-claims), reductive mammoplasty, mastopexy and augmentation mammoplasty present several limitations related to the different techniques, to the patient’s individuality, patient’s expectations and to the material used. Knowing how these elements interrelate can help improve the end result and also reduce the risk of complications. Thus, this chapter brings information on review of the main techniques of breast aesthetic surgery in relation to their indications, planning, surgical technique, complications, and limits.


Breast implants  Mammaplasty  Reduction mammaplasty Aesthetical outcomes 

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Benelli L. A new periareolar mammaplasty: the “round block” technique. Aesthet Plast Surg. 1990;14(2):93–100. A classical article in which Benelli’s round-block technique is described. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lipworth L, Tarone RE, Ye W, Olsen JH, Nyren O, McLaughlin JK. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:490–3. A review of the results of 2 important Scandinavian cohort studies with 3,486 and 2,736 patients respectively, who underwent breast augmentation between 1965 and 1963. There was no evidence of association between breast cancer and cancer risk of any type. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pitanguy I. Evaluation of contouring surgery today: a 30-year perspective. Plast Reconstruct Surg. 2000;105:1499. A retrospective of 30 years’ the main techniques of body contour developed by Pitanguy; among them, reduction mammoplasty. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Puskas JE, Luebbers MT. Breast implants: the good, the bad and the ugly. Can nanotechnology improve implants? WIREs Nanobiotechnol. 2011; A review article on the physical-chemical characteristics of mammary implants. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh KA, Losken A. Additional benefits of reduction mammaplasty: a systematic review of the literature. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:562–70. Systematic review of the literature showing other functional, psychological and quality-of-life benefits with reductive mammoplasty. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mónica Adriana Rodriguéz Martinéz
    • 1
  • An Wan Ching
    • 2
  • Antônio Luiz Frasson
    • 3
  1. 1.Plastic SurgeryAlbert Einstein HospitalSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Plastic SurgeryFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Breast SurgeryAlbert Einstein HospitalSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations