• BBSG – Brazilian Breast Study Group


Gynecomastia is the benign proliferation of glandular tissue in males, more frequent in adolescents and the elderly. In most cases, it is a physiological and transient condition, but an in-depth clinical investigation may be necessary to rule out pathological causes. Differential diagnosis should be made between true gynecomastia and lipomastia, which consists of the accumulation of adipose tissue in the prepectoral region.

Recommended Reading

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    Braunstein GD. Gynecomastia. NEJM. 2007;357(12):1229–37. A review article on investigation (imaging and laboratory tests) management of gynecomastia and postoperative resultsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Deepinder F, Braunstein GD. Drug-induced gynecomastia: na evidence-based review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2012;11(5):779–95. An article about medicines inducing gynecomastiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    James R, Ahmed F, Cunnick G. The efficacy of tamoxifen in the treatment of primary gynecomastia: an observational study of tamoxifen versus observation alone. Breast J. 2012;18(6):620–1. Use of tamoxifen to manage gynecomastiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Lee JH, Kim IK, Kim TG, Kim YH. Surgical correction of gynecomastia with minimal scarring. Aesthet Plast Surg. 2012;36(6):1302–6. Surgical treatment of gynecomastiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • BBSG – Brazilian Breast Study Group
    • 1
  1. 1.BBSGSão PauloBrazil

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