A breast lump refers to every tumor present in the mammary gland. It may present cystic or solid content, might be palpable to the clinical examination or not, and is considered one of the most common reasons to access medical aid and may reach 60% of the specialist consultations. Most patients will present benign pathologies (70–75% of diagnoses).
- 1.El-Wakeel H, Umpleby HC. Systematic review of fibroadenoma as a risk factor for breast cancer. Breast. 2003;12(5):302–7. 7 cohort and control case studies were evaluated. Two studies pointed in favor to the relative risk of breast cancer in fibroadenomas without hyperplasia between 1.48 and 1.7, fibroadenoma with hyperplasia between 3.47 and 3.7 and fibroadenoma with hyperplasia and atypia between 6.9 and 7.29, as the risk remains for more than 20 years after diagnosis. It suggests to improve the concern directed for patients with fibroadenoma associated with hyperplasia, with or without atypia.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Hartmenn LC, et al. Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:229–37. The presence of proliferative lesions in biopsies, patients’ age and family history are determinant factors to evaluate the risk of breast cancer. Apparently, there was no association between the presence of atypia and family history in determining the riskCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Mary Ann Kosir, MD, Professor of Surgery and Oncology, Wayne State UniversitySchool of Medicine, Karmanos Cancer Center/Gynecology and Obstetrics – MSD Manual Professional Edition. Breast Masses (Breast Lumps).Google Scholar
- 4.Oyama T, Koibuchi Y, McKee G. Core needle biopsy (CNB) as a diagnostic method for breast lesions: comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA). Breast Cancer. 2004;11(4):339–42. The vacuum-assisted puncture for non-palpable nodules has shown to be less specific when compared to percutaneous biopsy. In tangible lesions, the specificity of the vacuum-assisted puncture increases when the triple diagnosis is associated: physical examination, image and cytologyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Román M, Quintana MJ, Ferrer J, Sala M. Castells. Cumulative risk of breast cancer screening outcomes according to the presence of previous benign breast disease and family history of breast cancer: supporting personalized screening. Br J Cancer. 2017;116(11):1480–5. Screening follow-up of 42,928 women for 15 years, demonstrating the excess of exams in women with benign pathologies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Smith GE, Burrows P. Ultrasound diagnosis of fibroadenoma – is biopsy always necessary? Clin Radiol. 2008;63(5):511–5. Retrospective study with 347 women under the age of 25 who presented nodules with benign characteristics and were still subjected to biopsy by coarse needle. Divergence was present in just one case, in which invasive carcinoma was diagnosed. It concludes that in young women with nodules whose ultrasonographic analysis is benign, do not require histological diagnosis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar