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Benign Mimics of Prostate Carcinoma

  • Rajal B. ShahEmail author
  • Ming Zhou
Chapter

Abstract

The diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, especially when present in a limited amount in biopsy, is often challenging because numerous benign conditions have architectural and cytological features overlapping with and mimicking carcinoma. These mimics include various anatomic structures, inflammatory and reactive conditions, and pathophysiological conditions, including atrophy, hyperplasia, and metaplasia. Many of these lesions are readily recognized and separated from malignancy, but some may cause potential diagnostic difficulties.

A useful approach to classifying benign mimics is based on major growth patterns of prostate carcinoma outlined in the Gleason grading system. This approach provides a conceptual framework for considering differential diagnoses. Three major growth patterns are encountered: small well-formed gland pattern mimicking Gleason pattern 3 carcinomas; cribriform growth pattern mimicking Gleason pattern 4 carcinomas; and poorly formed/fused gland/nest/single cell pattern mimicking Gleason pattern 4 or 5 carcinomas. Most benign lesions mimic small gland (acinar) adenocarcinoma; however, mixture of growth patterns is also commonly encountered.

Before establishing a cancer diagnosis, pathologists should always consider and rule out various benign lesions that mimic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers should be utilized to support the morphological impression, and one should be aware about pitfalls and limitations of markers. This chapter outlines an overall approach, classification, description of pathologic features, and diagnostic pitfalls of each benign entity.

Keywords

Atrophy Postatrophic hyperplasia Partial atrophy Proliferative inflammatory atrophy PIA Atrophic adenocarcinoma Mucinous metaplasia Cowper’s gland Foamy gland adenocarcinoma Gleason grading system Cribriform growth pattern Acinar adenocarcinoma Nephrogenic adenoma Basal cell hyperplasia Basal cell adenoma Radiation atypia Adenosis Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia AAH Diffuse adenosis Sclerosing adenosis Nephrogenic adenoma Seminal vesicle/ejaculatory duct epithelium Verumontanum mucosal gland hyperplasia Mesonephric remnant hyperplasia Nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis Chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL Xanthoma Malakoplakia Paraganglia Central zone Transition zone Clear cell cribriform hyperplasia Transurethral resection TURP 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Robert J Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Tufts Medical CenterBostonUSA

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