Immunohistochemistry in Prostate Biopsy Evaluation

  • Rajal B. ShahEmail author
  • Ming Zhou


Immunohistochemistry is widely used in the work-up of difficult prostate biopsies. It is used principally in two clinical settings: to distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions that mimic cancer, and to distinguish poorly differentiated prostate cancer from other malignant tumors that can occasionally involve the prostate, including urothelial carcinoma and colonic adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, as an adjunct to histological examination, has had significant impact on the prostate biopsy evaluation. In the case of limited cancer or histological variants with deceptively bland morphology, immunohistochemistry is an indispensible part of the work-up. Use of immunohistochemistry has also significantly reduced the incidence of prostate biopsies with atypical diagnosis to establish a definitive diagnosis. Many immunohistochemical biomarkers have been investigated for prognostic purposes and risk stratification; however, none has been sufficiently validated for routine clinical use.


Immunohistochemistry Basal cell markers High molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK) p63 p40 α-Methylacyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR P504S) ERG protein Cytokeratins Prostate-specific markers Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) Prostein (P501S) NKX3.1 TTF-1 CDX-2 PTEN Antibody cocktails 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Robert J Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Tufts Medical CenterBostonUSA

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