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“Young Stroke” Risks Potentially Linked to the Flammer Syndrome Phenotype: Facts and Hypotheses

  • Jiri PolivkaJr
  • Jiri Polivka
  • Martin Pesta
  • Vladimir Rohan
  • Libuse Celedova
  • Rostislav Cevela
  • Ondrej Topolcan
  • Olga GolubnitschajaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine book series (APPPM, volume 11)

Abstract

Currently, the stroke is registered amongst the five leading causes of death and disability worldwide. From the European perspective approximately 1.1 million individuals become stroke diagnosed each year. The disorder demonstrates severe socioeconomic consequences: the associated total EU costs are as high as €45 billion annually.

Even if the majority of the stroke cases are diagnosed in the elderly, about 10% of all patients experience the disorder at the age below 50 years – so-called “young strokes”. Moreover, the incidence as well prevalence of stroke in young adults is dramatically increasing worldwide. Further, the proportion of strokes with unknown etiology among the youngest subgroup of patients reaches up to 39.6–42% that remains largely unexplained. Therefore, specifically modifiable risk factors such as suboptimal heath conditions are proposed to be considered for innovative risk assessment in the “young stroke” prediction and prevention.

Due to symptoms characteristic for the Flammer syndrome (FS), we hypothesised a potential relationship between FS phenotype and increased risks for the “young stroke” predisposition. FS characteristic symptoms and signs analysed in the chapter may further synergistically contribute to the cerebrovascular events being potentially indicative for the stroke predisposition in young individuals.

If the hypothesised association become confirmed by multi-centre studies run, FS phenotype may get of great clinical utility for creating innovative strategies of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine for the stroke management utilising novel screening programmes, individualised patient profiling, specialised questionnaires and novel biomarker patterns for an effective risk assessment, targeted prevention, and therapy monitoring tailored to the person.

Keywords

Young adults Flammer Syndrome Phenotype Risk factors Individualised patient profile Aetiology Vascular Abnormal BMI Blood flow Microcirculation Life style Sleep patterns Migraine Hormonal regulation Psychology Stress Screening program Questionnaire Risk assessment Baroreceptor sensitivity Cardiac Circadian rhythm Tinnitus Thermoregulation Altered sensation Body dehydration Predictive preventive personalised medicine 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiri PolivkaJr
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jiri Polivka
    • 3
  • Martin Pesta
    • 2
    • 4
  • Vladimir Rohan
    • 3
  • Libuse Celedova
    • 5
  • Rostislav Cevela
    • 5
  • Ondrej Topolcan
    • 6
  • Olga Golubnitschaja
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine in PilsenCharles UniversityPilsenCzech Republic
  2. 2.Biomedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine in PilsenCharles UniversityPilsenCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, University Hospital Pilsen, and Faculty of Medicine in PilsenCharles UniversityPilsenCzech Republic
  4. 4.Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine in PilsenCharles UniversityPilsenCzech Republic
  5. 5.Department of Social and Assessment Medicine, Faculty of Medicine in PilsenCharles UniversityPilsenCzech Republic
  6. 6.Department of ImmunochemistryUniversity Hospital PilsenPilsenCzech Republic
  7. 7.Radiological ClinicUKB, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität BonnBonnGermany
  8. 8.Breast Cancer Research CentreUKB, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität BonnBonnGermany
  9. 9.Centre for Integrated Oncology, Cologne-BonnRheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität BonnBonnGermany

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